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前言

本文主要为笔者在学习JavaScript正则过程中的一点学习笔记,主要讲述JavaScript的正则表达式及其相关,包含String的match、replace、search和split方法。

创建正则

  • 字面量方式:var reg = /abc/;
    脚本加载后编译,性能更好
  • RegExp对象的构造函数 var reg = new RegExp("abc");

特殊字符

字符 含义
^ 匹配字符串的开始。如果多行标示被设为true,同时匹配换行后紧跟的字符
$ 匹配字符串的结尾。如果多行标示被设为true,同时匹配换行前紧跟的字符
* 匹配前一个字符0次或者是多次
+ 匹配前一个字符1次或者多次,等同于{1,}
? 匹配前一个字符0次或者1次,等同于{0,1}
. 匹配任何除了新一行开头字符的任何单个字符 /.n/将会匹配”an apple is on the tree”中的“an”和“on”,不匹配“nay”
(x) 匹配‘x’并且记住匹配项,即捕获分组.匹配到子字符串可以通过结果数组的[1],…,[n]进行访问
(?:x) 匹配‘x’但是不记住匹配项,即非捕获分组.匹配到子字符串不能通过结果数组的[1],…,[n]进行访问,性能略高
x(?=y) 匹配‘x’仅仅当‘x’后面跟着‘y’,但是不记住‘y’。正向肯定查找,非捕获分组的一种
x(?!y) 匹配‘x’仅仅当‘x’后面不跟着‘y’,不记住‘y’。正向否定查找,非捕获分组的一种
x|y 匹配‘x’或‘y’
{n} n是正整数,匹配前面一个字符刚好发生了n次
{n,m} n,m都是正整数。匹配前面的字符至少n次,最多m次。如果n或者m的值是0,这个值被忽略
[xyz] 匹配方括号中的任意字符。可以使用破折号(-)来指定一个字符范围。
[^xyz] 匹配任何没有包含在括号中的字符,可以使用破折号指定一个字符范围
[\b] 匹配一个退格(U+008)
\b 匹配一个单词的边界
\B 匹配一个非单词边界
\d 匹配一个数字
\D 匹配一个非数字字符
\s 匹配一个空白字符,包括空格、制表符、换页符和换行符
\S 匹配一个非空白字符
\t 匹配一个水平制表符
\v 匹配一个垂直制表符
\w 匹配一个单字字符
\W 匹配一个非单子字符
\n 匹配一个换行符
\f 匹配一个换页符
\r 匹配一个回车符
\num num 是一个正整数,返回引用到捕获分组的副字符串。 eg/\w+(,)?\w+(!)?\w+\1\w+\2/匹配"beijing,the!capital,of!china"
标志值
g 全局搜索(global)
m 多行搜索(multiline)
i 不区分大小写(ignoreCase)

RegExp方法

  • exec(string)
    返回一个数组。eg:

    var myRe = new RegExp("d(b+)d", "g"),
    var myArray = myRe.exec("cdbbbdc");
    

    ">var myRe = new RegExp("d(b+)d", "g"),
    var myArray = myRe.exec("cdbbbdc");

    属性或索引 描述 例子中对应的值
    myArray 匹配到的字符串和所有被捕获的子字符串 [“dbbbd”, ‘bbb’]
    [0] 匹配的所有字符串 ‘dbbdd’
    index 匹配到的字符串开始的索引值(以0开始) 1
    input 输入的初始字符串 “cdbbbdc”
    myRe
    lastIndex 下一次匹配开始的索引值(只有g参数时才有用) 5
    source 模式文本 “d(\b+)d”
  • test(string)
    return true/false
    查询字符串里是否有该正则的匹配

String方法

  • match(RegExp)

    1. 如果正则表达式中没有g标志,返回和RegExp.match(string)相同的结果。且返回的数组同时拥有input和index属性
    2. 如果正则表达式包含g标志,则返回一个包含所有匹配结果的数组(无input和index属性)。没有匹配到,则返回null
  • split(RegExp)
    通过把字符串分割成子字符串来把一个string对象分割成一个字符串数组

  • search(RegExp)
    查看字符串对象与一个正则表达式是否匹配,返回正则表达式在字符串中首次匹配项的索引。否则,返回-1
    ps:如果传入一个非正则表达式对象,则会使用new RegExp(obj)隐式地将其装换为正则表达式对象。

  • replace(RegExp, replace|function)
    使用replacement替换string中匹配的RegExp,返回替换后的字符串,不该表原字符串。
    替换字符串可以插入下面的特殊变量名:

    变量名 代表的值
    $ 插入一个”$”
    @@bodyamp; 插入匹配的字符串

    @@title

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    插入当前匹配的字符串左边的内容
    $’ 插入当前匹配的字符串右边的内容
    $n or $nn n或nn是十进制的数字,那么插入第n个括号匹配的字符串

    指定一个函数作为参数
    这种情况下,当匹配执行后,该函数就会执行,函数的返回值作为替换字符串(上面的特殊参数在这里不能使用)。如果正则表达式是全局匹配模式,则该function将被多次调用,每次匹配都会被调用。
    该函数的参数:

    变量名 代表的值
    match 匹配的字符串(对应上面的@@bodyamp;)
    p1,p2,…,pn 代表RegExp对象中第n个括号匹配的字符串(对应于上述的$1,$2…)
    offset 匹配到的子字符串在原字符串中的偏移量。
    string 被匹配的原字符串

几个简单小DEMO

下面使用上面刚叙述过的正则表达式来练习下

  • DEMO1:
    将给定的任意一串阿拉伯数字例如:123456789 返回用逗号分割的结果123,456,789
     function test1(str) {
         return str.replace(/\B(?=(?:\d{3})+$)/g, ',');
     }
    

    "> function test1(str) {
    return str.replace(/\B(?=(?:\d{3})+$)/g, ',');
    }

  • DEMO2:
    随机给定的一串字符,将该字符串里面的所有的阿拉伯数字均增长2倍,然后返回该字符串
     function test2(str) {
         str.replace(/\d/g, function(val) {
             return val * 2;
         });
     }
    

    "> function test2(str) {
    str.replace(/\d/g, function(val) {
    return val * 2;
    });
    }

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