背景

以前一直觉得只要pull和push就够了,但合作中总会遇到各种非理想的情况。这时候才发现git其他命令的作用。

现在的情况是,repo是一个远程team维护的,我们需要增加新feature,那么就是一个feature分支了。由于开发中各种修改,本feature分支多次commit。最后,交给远程team review的时候,人家看着乱七八糟的修改历史很蛋疼:很难看懂各种增量修改。其实,对人家来说,我们的改动应该就是增加或者删除。给他们看开发过程的增量反而太乱。于是,人家要求我们将feature分支的提交合并,这样看起来清爽。

一些简单的命令准备

合并分支的命令是rebase,除此之外,其他的一些命令也应该知晓。

查看commit历史

git log

查看当前状态

git status

添加所有文件

git add .

提交修改

git commit -m "本次提交添加了xxxx"

vim的简单指令:

参阅vim的简单使用

准备一个测试repo

git init test-rebase
cd test-rebase

提交一个文件多次:

vim test.txt
//输入第一次提交。 git add test.txt
git commit -m "1" vim test.txt
//输入第2次提交。 git add test.txt
git commit -m "2" vim test.txt
//输入第3次提交。 git add test.txt
git commit -m "3"

查看log:

git log

//////
commit 0353373749d72e53a34c7bdda86d77d7bb3ca6fe
Author: ryan <v-rmiao@expedia.com>
Date: Wed Jul 19 13:23:18 2017 +0800 3 commit acf6d24adc2097fda82d29064e8edfef6355d01d
Author: ryan <v-rmiao@expedia.com>
Date: Wed Jul 19 13:20:37 2017 +0800 2 commit 2169bc5e20386951b19aff32143e74f2da683df2
Author: ryan <v-rmiao@expedia.com>
Date: Wed Jul 19 13:19:42 2017 +0800 1

可以看到有三次提交了。现在我们想要把第2次和第3次提交的内容合并成一次提交。

开始rebase

1. 复制合并前的一次提交的hash

这里就是第一次提交的hash。即2169bc5e2

2. git rebase -i xxx

git rebase -i 2169bc5e2

进入历史提交的编辑页面,此时编辑方式为vim。

pick acf6d24 2
pick 0353373 3 # Rebase 2169bc5..0353373 onto 2169bc5 (2 commands)
#
# Commands:
# p, pick = use commit
# r, reword = use commit, but edit the commit message
# e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
# s, squash = use commit, but meld into previous commit
# f, fixup = like "squash", but discard this commit's log message
# x, exec = run command (the rest of the line) using shell
# d, drop = remove commit
#
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
#
# If you remove a line here THAT COMMIT WILL BE LOST.
#
# However, if you remove everything, the rebase will be aborted.
#
# Note that empty commits are commented out

可以看到第2次和第3次的提交消息,并且是从old->new来排序的。我们需要把第3次提交合并到第2次上。使用squash.

squash

修改第三次提交为squash,意思是和前一次(第二次)提交合并。

键盘按键j移动到第二行,然后按a开始编辑,删除pick,插入squash

如下:

pick acf6d24 2
squash 0353373 3 # Rebase 2169bc5..0353373 onto 2169bc5 (2 commands)
#
# Commands:
# p, pick = use commit
# r, reword = use commit, but edit the commit message
# e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
# s, squash = use commit, but meld into previous commit
# f, fixup = like "squash", but discard this commit's log message
# x, exec = run command (the rest of the line) using shell
# d, drop = remove commit
#
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
#
# If you remove a line here THAT COMMIT WILL BE LOST.
#
# However, if you remove everything, the rebase will be aborted.
#
# Note that empty commits are commented out

然后,按esc退出编辑,再按:,输入wq保存。

这时候会进入第二个vim页面,这里让我们再次修改commit message的。就是合并后的message。

# This is a combination of 2 commits.
这是合并后的message,以下是之前合并的历史
# This is the 1st commit message: 2 # This is the commit message #2: 3 # Please enter the commit message for your changes. Lines starting
# with '#' will be ignored, and an empty message aborts the commit.
#
# Date: Wed Jul 19 13:20:37 2017 +0800
#
# interactive rebase in progress; onto 2169bc5
# Last commands done (2 commands done):
# pick acf6d24 2
# squash 0353373 3
# No commands remaining.
# You are currently editing a commit while rebasing branch 'master' on '2169bc5'.
#
# Changes to be committed:

还是和刚才一样,按o插入下一行,输入这次合并的message。然后按esc,按:, 输入wq保存并退出。

完事,再次查看log

git log

内容如下:

commit 8f54e6b5643ff26ac967a9e6e6cded68a6c50906
Author: ryan <v-rmiao@expedia.com>
Date: Wed Jul 19 13:20:37 2017 +0800 这是合并后的message,以下是之前合并的历史 2 3 commit 2169bc5e20386951b19aff32143e74f2da683df2
Author: ryan <v-rmiao@expedia.com>
Date: Wed Jul 19 13:19:42 2017 +0800 1

参考

https://git-scm.com/book/zh/v2/Git-工具-重写历史