从SQL领域来的用户,对于ES的文件关系维护方式会感到很不习惯。毕竟,ES是分布式数据库只能高效处理独个扁平类型文件,无法支持关系式数据库那样的文件拼接。但是,任何数据库应用都无法避免树型文件关系,因为这是业务模式需要的表现形式。在ES里,无论nested或join类型的数据,父-子关系的数据文件实际上是放在同一个索引index里的。在ES里已经没有数据表(doc_type)的概念。但从操作层面上ES提供了relation类型来支持父-子数据关系操作。所以,nested数据类型一般用来表达比较固定的嵌入数据。因为每次更新都需要重新对文件进行一次索引。join类型的数据则可以对数据关系的两头分别独立进行更新,方便很多。

下面我们现示范一下nested数据类型的使用。在mapping里可以申明nested数据类型来代表嵌入文件,如下:

  val fruitMapping = client.execute(
putMapping("fruits").fields(
KeywordField("code"),
SearchAsYouTypeField("name")
.fields(KeywordField("keyword")),
floatField("price"),
NestedField("location").fields(
KeywordField("shopid"),
textField("shopname"),
longField("qty"))
)
).await

这段代码产生了下面的mapping:

{
"fruits" : {
"mappings" : {
"properties" : {
"code" : {
"type" : "keyword"
},
"location" : {
"type" : "nested",
"properties" : {
"qty" : {
"type" : "long"
},
"shopid" : {
"type" : "keyword"
},
"shopname" : {
"type" : "text"
}
}
},
"name" : {
"type" : "text",
"fields" : {
"keyword" : {
"type" : "keyword"
}
}
},
"price" : {
"type" : "float"
}
}
}
}
}

location是个nested类型字段,内嵌文件格式含shopid,shopname,qty各字段。下面的例子里向fruits索引添加了几个包含了location的文件:

  val f1 = indexInto("fruits").id("f001")
.fields(
"code" -> "f001",
"name" -> "东莞荔枝",
"price" -> 11.5,
"location" -> List(Map(
"shopid" -> "s001",
"shopname" -> "中心店",
"qty" -> 500.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s002",
"shopname" -> "东门店",
"qty" -> 0.0
)
)
)
val f2 = indexInto("fruits").id("f002")
.fields(
"code" -> "f002",
"name" -> "陕西富士苹果",
"price" -> 11.5,
"location" -> List(Map(
"shopid" -> "s001",
"shopname" -> "中心店",
"qty" -> 300.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s003",
"shopname" -> "龙岗店",
"qty" -> 200.0
)
)
)
val f3 = indexInto("fruits").id("f003")
.fields(
"code" -> "f003",
"name" -> "进口菲律宾香蕉",
"price" -> 5.3,
"location" -> List(Map(
"shopid" -> "s001",
"shopname" -> "中心店",
"qty" -> 300.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s003",
"shopname" -> "龙岗店",
"qty" -> 200.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s002",
"shopname" -> "东门店",
"qty" -> 200.0
)
)
)
val newIndex = for {
_ <- client.execute(f1)
_ <- client.execute(f2)
_ <- client.execute(f3)
} yield ("成功增添三条记录") newIndex.onComplete {
case Success(trb) => println(s"${trb}")
case Failure(err) => println(s"error: ${err.getMessage}")
}

用elastic4s可以比较方便的进行nested类型数据更新。下面是个更新nested文件的例子:

  val f002 = client.execute(get("fruits","f002").fetchSourceInclude("location")).await
val locs: List[Map[String,Any]] = f002.result.source("location").asInstanceOf[List[Map[String,Any]]]
val newloc = Map("shopid" -> "s004","shopname" -> "宝安店", "qty" -> )
val newlocs = locs.foldLeft(List[Map[String,Any]]()) { (b, m) =>
if (m("shopid") != newloc("shopid"))
m :: b
else b
} val newdoc = updateById("fruits","f002")
.doc(
Map(
"location" -> (newloc :: newlocs)
)
)

在上面这个例子里:需要把一条新的嵌入文件s004更新到f002文件里。我们先把f002里原来的location取出,去掉s004节点,然后将新节点加入location清单,再更新update f002文件。

刚才提到过:join类型实际上还是在同一个索引里实现的。比如我希望记录每个fruit的进货历史,也就是说现在fruit下需要增加一个子文件purchase_history。这个purchase_history也是在同一个mapping里定义的:

  val fruitMapping = client.execute(
putMapping("fruits").fields(
KeywordField("code"),
SearchAsYouTypeField("name")
.fields(KeywordField("keyword")),
floatField("price"),
NestedField("location").fields(
KeywordField("shopid"),
textField("shopname"),
longField("qty")),
//purchase_history
keywordField("supplier_code"),
textField("supplier_name"),
dateField("purchase_date")
.ignoreMalformed(true)
.format("strict_date_optional_time||epoch_millis"),
joinField("purchase_history")
.relation("fruit","purchase")
)
).await

下面是关于上层父文件的索引indexing操作的例子:

  val f1 = indexInto("fruits").id("f001").routing("f001")
.fields(
"code" -> "f001",
"name" -> "东莞荔枝",
"price" -> 11.5,
"location" -> List(Map(
"shopid" -> "s001",
"shopname" -> "中心店",
"qty" -> 500.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s002",
"shopname" -> "东门店",
"qty" -> 0.0
)
),
"purchase_history" -> "fruit"
)
val f2 = indexInto("fruits").id("f002").routing("f002")
.fields(
"code" -> "f002",
"name" -> "陕西富士苹果",
"price" -> 11.5,
"location" -> List(Map(
"shopid" -> "s001",
"shopname" -> "中心店",
"qty" -> 300.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s003",
"shopname" -> "龙岗店",
"qty" -> 200.0
)
),
"purchase_history" -> "fruit"
)
val f3 = indexInto("fruits").id("f003").routing("f003")
.fields(
"code" -> "f003",
"name" -> "进口菲律宾香蕉",
"price" -> 5.3,
"location" -> List(Map(
"shopid" -> "s001",
"shopname" -> "中心店",
"qty" -> 300.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s003",
"shopname" -> "龙岗店",
"qty" -> 200.0
),
Map(
"shopid" -> "s002",
"shopname" -> "东门店",
"qty" -> 200.0
)
),
"purchase_history" -> "fruit"
)
val newIndex = for {
_ <- client.execute(f1)
_ <- client.execute(f2)
_ <- client.execute(f3)
} yield ("成功增添三条记录")

elastic4s子文件的索引操作示范如下:

  val h1 = indexInto("fruits").id("h001").routing("f003")
.fields(
"supplier_code" -> "v001",
"supplier_name" -> "百果园",
"purchase_date" -> "2020-02-09",
"purchase_history" -> Child("purchase", "f003")) val h2 = indexInto("fruits").id("h002").routing("f002")
.fields(
"supplier_code" -> "v001",
"supplier_name" -> "百果园",
"purchase_date" -> "2019-10-11",
"purchase_history" -> Child("purchase", "f002")) val h3 = indexInto("fruits").id("h003").routing("f002")
.fields(
"supplier_code" -> "v002",
"supplier_name" -> "华南城花果批发市场",
"purchase_date" -> "2020-01-23",
"purchase_history" -> Child("purchase", "f002")) val childIndex = for {
_ <- client.execute(h1)
_ <- client.execute(h2)
_ <- client.execute(h3)
} yield ("成功增添三条子记录")

好了,现在这个fruits索引里已经包含了nested,join两种嵌入文件数据。下面我们就试试各种的读取方式。首先nested类型数据可以通过nestedQuery读取:

  val qNested = search("fruits").query(
nestedQuery("location").query(
matchQuery("location.shopname","中心")
)
)
println(s"${qNested.show}")
val nestedResult = client.execute(qNested).await
if(nestedResult.isSuccess)
nestedResult.result.hits.hits.foreach(m => println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}"))
else println(s"Error: ${nestedResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... POST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"nested":{"path":"location","query":{"match":{"location.shopname":{"query":"中心"}}}}}},Some(application/json))
HashMap(name -> 东莞荔枝, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 500.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 0.0)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f001)
HashMap(name -> 进口菲律宾香蕉, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0), Map(shopid -> s003, shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 200.0)), price -> 5.3, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f003)
HashMap(name -> 陕西富士苹果, location -> List(Map(shopname -> 宝安店, qty -> , shopid -> s004), Map(shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0, shopid -> s003), Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f002)

join类型子文件可以通过子文件的ParentID Query读取:

  val qPid = search("fruits").query(
ParentIdQuery("purchase","f002")
)
println(s"${qPid.show}") val pidResult = client.execute(qPid).await
if(pidResult.isSuccess)
pidResult.result.hits.hits.foreach(m => println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}"))
else println(s"Error: ${pidResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... POST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"parent_id":{"type":"purchase","id":"f002"}}},Some(application/json))
Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))
Map(supplier_code -> v002, supplier_name -> 华南城花果批发市场, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))

join类型父辈文件可以通过搜索其子文件hasChild获取:

  val qHaschild = search("fruits").query(
hasChildQuery("purchase",
matchQuery("supplier_name","百果")
)
)
println(s"${qHaschild.show}")
val haschildResult = client.execute(qHaschild).await
if(haschildResult.isSuccess)
haschildResult.result.hits.hits.foreach(m => println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}"))
else println(s"Error: ${haschildResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... POST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"has_child":{"type":"purchase","score_mode":"none","query":{"match":{"supplier_name":{"query":"百果"}}}}}},Some(application/json))
HashMap(name -> 进口菲律宾香蕉, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0), Map(shopid -> s003, shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 200.0)), price -> 5.3, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f003)
HashMap(name -> 陕西富士苹果, location -> List(Map(shopname -> 宝安店, qty -> , shopid -> s004), Map(shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0, shopid -> s003), Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f002)

join类型子文件也可以搜索其父辈文件获取:

 val qHasparent= search("fruits").query(
hasParentQuery("fruit",
nestedQuery("location").query(
matchQuery("location.shopname","中心")
),false
)
)
println(s"${qHasparent.show}")
val hasparentResult = client.execute(qHasparent).await
if(hasparentResult.isSuccess)
hasparentResult.result.hits.hits.foreach(m => println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}"))
else println(s"Error: ${hasparentResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... OST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"has_parent":{"parent_type":"fruit","query":{"nested":{"path":"location","query":{"match":{"location.shopname":{"query":"中心"}}}}}}}},Some(application/json))
Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f003))
Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))
Map(supplier_code -> v002, supplier_name -> 华南城花果批发市场, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))

上面这个例子稍微复杂一点:我们想得出所有子文件,它们的父辈文件里嵌入nested文件包含location.shopname match "中心"。

这些例子主要展示了如何通过父子关系的一方取获取另一方的数据,如:通过子文件搜索获取对应的父文件或通过父文件获取对应的子文件。也就是说搜索目标和获取目标:父子、子父,不是同一种文件。我们可以通过inner_hits来同时获取符合搜索条件的文件。如nestedQuery.inner():

 val qNested = search("fruits").query(
nestedQuery("location").query(
matchQuery("location.shopname","中心")
).inner(InnerHit("locations"))
)
println(s"${qNested.show}")
val nestedResult = client.execute(qNested).await
if(nestedResult.isSuccess) {
nestedResult.result.hits.hits.foreach{ m =>
println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}")
m.innerHits.foreach { i =>
val n = i._1
i._2.hits.foreach(h => println(s"$n, ${h.source}"))
}
}
} else println(s"Error: ${nestedResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... POST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"nested":{"path":"location","query":{"match":{"location.shopname":{"query":"中心"}}},"inner_hits":{"name":"locations"}}}},Some(application/json))
HashMap(name -> 东莞荔枝, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 500.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 0.0)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f001)
locations, Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 500.0)
HashMap(name -> 进口菲律宾香蕉, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0), Map(shopid -> s003, shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 200.0)), price -> 5.3, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f003)
locations, Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0)
HashMap(name -> 陕西富士苹果, location -> List(Map(shopname -> 宝安店, qty -> , shopid -> s004), Map(shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0, shopid -> s003), Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f002)
locations, Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)

hasChildQuery.innerHit():

  val qHaschild = search("fruits").query(
hasChildQuery("purchase",
matchQuery("supplier_name","百果")
).innerHit("purchases")
)
println(s"${qHaschild.show}")
val haschildResult = client.execute(qHaschild).await
if(haschildResult.isSuccess) {
haschildResult.result.hits.hits.foreach{m =>
println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}")
m.innerHits.foreach { i =>
val n = i._1
i._2.hits.foreach(h => println(s"$n, ${h.source}"))
}
}
} else println(s"Error: ${haschildResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... POST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"has_child":{"type":"purchase","score_mode":"none","query":{"match":{"supplier_name":{"query":"百果"}}},"inner_hits":{"name":"purchases"}}}},Some(application/json))
HashMap(name -> 进口菲律宾香蕉, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0), Map(shopid -> s003, shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 200.0)), price -> 5.3, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f003)
purchases, Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f003))
HashMap(name -> 陕西富士苹果, location -> List(Map(shopname -> 宝安店, qty -> , shopid -> s004), Map(shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0, shopid -> s003), Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f002)
purchases, Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))
purchases, Map(supplier_code -> v002, supplier_name -> 华南城花果批发市场, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))

hasParentQuery.innerHit():

  val qHasparent= search("fruits").query(
hasParentQuery("fruit",
nestedQuery("location").query(
matchQuery("location.shopname","中心")
),false
).innerHit(InnerHit("fruits"))
)
println(s"${qHasparent.show}")
val hasparentResult = client.execute(qHasparent).await
if(hasparentResult.isSuccess) {
hasparentResult.result.hits.hits.foreach{m =>
println(s"${m.sourceAsMap}")
m.innerHits.foreach { i =>
val n = i._1
i._2.hits.foreach(h => println(s"$n, ${h.source}"))
}
}
} else println(s"Error: ${hasparentResult.error.causedBy.getOrElse("unknown")}") ... POST:/fruits/_search?
StringEntity({"query":{"has_parent":{"parent_type":"fruit","query":{"nested":{"path":"location","query":{"match":{"location.shopname":{"query":"中心"}}}}},"inner_hits":{"name":"fruits"}}}},Some(application/json))
Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f003))
fruits, HashMap(name -> 进口菲律宾香蕉, location -> List(Map(shopid -> s001, shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0), Map(shopid -> s003, shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0), Map(shopid -> s002, shopname -> 东门店, qty -> 200.0)), price -> 5.3, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f003)
Map(supplier_code -> v001, supplier_name -> 百果园, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))
fruits, HashMap(name -> 陕西富士苹果, location -> List(Map(shopname -> 宝安店, qty -> , shopid -> s004), Map(shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0, shopid -> s003), Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f002)
Map(supplier_code -> v002, supplier_name -> 华南城花果批发市场, purchase_date -> --, purchase_history -> Map(name -> purchase, parent -> f002))
fruits, HashMap(name -> 陕西富士苹果, location -> List(Map(shopname -> 宝安店, qty -> , shopid -> s004), Map(shopname -> 龙岗店, qty -> 200.0, shopid -> s003), Map(shopname -> 中心店, qty -> 300.0, shopid -> s001)), price -> 11.5, purchase_history -> fruit, code -> f002)