zookeeper简介

zookeeper是为分布式应用提供分布式协作服务的开源软件。它提供了一组简单的原子操作,分布式应用可以基于这些原子操作来实现更高层次的同步服务,配置维护,组管理和命名。zookeeper的设计使基于它的编程非常容易,若我们熟悉目录树结构的文件系统,也会很容易使用zookeeper的数据模型样式。它运行在java上,有java和c的客户端。

  协作服务因难于获取正确而臭名远扬,他们特别易于出错如竞争条件和死锁。zookeeper的动机是减轻分布式应用中从零开始实现协作服务的压力。

zookeeper的特点

1.简单:zookeeper运行分布式进行通过一个共享的层次命名空间来进行协作,该命名空间的组织类似于标准的文件系统。命名空间包括数据注册器(称之为znode),在zookeeper看来,这类似于文件和目录。与典型的文件系统设计用来存储不同的是,zookeeper数据是存放在内存中,这意味着zookeeper可以实现很高的吞吐量和低延迟。

ZooKeeper 实现在高性能,高可用性,严格有序的访问方面有很大的优势。在性能方面的优势使它可以应用在大型的的分布式系统。在可靠性方面,避免单点故障。严格的顺序访问使它在客户端可以实现复杂的同步原语。

2. 可复制:类似于分布式进程的协作,zookeeper本身很容易在一组主机(称之为集合)中实现复制。zookeeper服务示意图:

  组成ZooKeeper服务的一组服务器都必须知道对方的。它们保存了内存映像的状态,以及在持久存储中的事务日志和快照。只要大部分的服务器可用,ZooKeeper服务将可用。
客户端连接到一台ZooKeeper服务器。客户端维护一个TCP连接,通过它发送请求,得到响应,得到监视事件,并发送心跳。如果TCP连接到服务器中断,客户端可以连接到不同的服务器。

3. 有序:ZooKeeper给每次更新使用数字打标记,它反映了所有zookeeper事务的顺序。随后的操作可以使用这些顺序来实现更高级别的抽象,如同步原语。

4.快速:它特别快,在“读为主”的工作中,ZooKeeper 应用程序运行在数千台机器,它在读远比写更多的时候(在10:1的比例)表现的最好。

数据模型与层次命名空间

ZooKeeper提供的名称空间更像是一个标准的文件系统。一个名字是一个由一个(或)分隔的路径元素的序列。zookeeper名称空间的每个节点由路径来标示。

节点和临时节点

  不像标准的文件系统,在ZooKeeper 命名空间中每个节点都有与它相关的数据以及子节点。它就像这样一个文件系统,它允许一个文件也可以是一个目录。(zookeeper是用来储存协作数据:状态信息,配置,位置信息等,因此,存储在每个节点的数据通常是很小的,在字节到千字节范围。)我们使用术语znode来表明我们谈论的是zookeeper数据节点。
  znodes保存一个数据结构,该数据结构包括数据变化的版本号和时间戳,ACL的变化,这些信息允许缓存验证和协作更新。一个znode的数据的每次变化,版本号的增加。例如,每当客户检索数据时,它也接收到数据的版本。
  在一个命名空间中的每个节点存储的数据的读写都是原子性的。读获取一个Znode所有的数据字节;写替换所有的数据。每个节点都有一个访问控制列表(ACL),限制谁可以做什么。
  zookeeper也有临时节点的概念。这些znodes只要创建znode的会话是活跃的,它就存在的。当会话结束时,这些znode被删除。

条件更新与监控

ZooKeeper支持监控的概念。客户端可以在一个znode上设置一个监控。当znode发生变化时会触发或者移除监控。当监控触发时,客户端接收到一个报文,表明znode发生了变化。若客户端和一个zookeeper服务器的连接损坏时,客户端接收到一个本地通知。

保障

ZooKeeper非常快速和简单. 虽然它的目标是为建设更为复杂的服务,例如同步,它提供了一系列的保证。这些是:

  • 顺序一致性----客户端的更新将被应用于它们被发送的命令中。

  • 原子性-- - 更新要么成功要么失败,不存在部分成功或者部分失败.

  • 单系统映像 ---- 不管连接到哪台服务器,客户端看到相同的服务视图.

  • 可靠性---- 一旦一个更新发生,直到下次一个客户端重新了更新,否则从更新的时间后都会保持。

  • 及时性--- - 在一定时间范围内保证系统的客户视图是最新的.

简单api

zookeeper设计目标之一是提供一个简单的编程接口,因此,它只支持下面这些操作:

create

在节点树上某个位置上创建一个新的节点。

delete

删除一个节点

exists

测试某位置的节点是否存在

get data

从一个节点读取数据

set data

向一个节点写入数据

get children

检索一个节点的一组子节点

sync

等待数据传播至一致。

实现

zookeeper组件显示了zookeeper服务的高级组件。除了request processor,组成zookeeper服务的每个服务器复制它的每个组件的copy。

zookeeper组件

replicated database是一个包含整个数据数的内存数据库. 为了可复原,更新被写到磁盘上,写操作在应用到内存数据库之前,先序列化到磁盘。

每个zookeeper服务器给所有的客户端提供服务。客户端恰恰连接到一个服务器来提交请求。读请求由每个服务器数据库的本地复制提供服务。写请求改变了服务的状态,由request processor来处理。

作为通信协议的一部分,所有客户端的写请求由一个单独的服务器处理,这个服务器是zookeeper的leader服务器,其余的zookeeper服务器叫做follower,follower从leader接收消息并达成消息传输。消息层在失败后替换leader并同步到连接到leader所有的follower。

ZooKeeper使用自定义的原子消息协议. 因消息层是原子性的, ZooKeeper 可以保证本地复制不会冲突. 当leader接收到一个写请求,当写操作应用到系统时,leader计算出系统的状态,并转化成一个捕捉新状态的事务.

 zookeeper启动

服务端启动

bin/zkServer.sh start

其中,启动命令如下:

start)
echo -n "Starting zookeeper ... "
if [ -f "$ZOOPIDFILE" ]; then
if kill - `cat "$ZOOPIDFILE"` > /dev/null >&; then
echo $command already running as process `cat "$ZOOPIDFILE"`.
exit
fi
fi
nohup "$JAVA" $ZOO_DATADIR_AUTOCREATE "-Dzookeeper.log.dir=${ZOO_LOG_DIR}" \
"-Dzookeeper.log.file=${ZOO_LOG_FILE}" "-Dzookeeper.root.logger=${ZOO_LOG4J_PROP}" \
-XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError -XX:OnOutOfMemoryError='kill -9 %p' \
-cp "$CLASSPATH" $JVMFLAGS $ZOOMAIN "$ZOOCFG" > "$_ZOO_DAEMON_OUT" >& < /dev/null &
if [ $? -eq ]
then
if /bin/echo -n $! > "$ZOOPIDFILE"
then
sleep
pid=$(cat "${ZOOPIDFILE}")
if ps -p "${pid}" > /dev/null >&; then
echo STARTED
else
echo FAILED TO START
exit
fi
else
echo FAILED TO WRITE PID
exit
fi
else
echo SERVER DID NOT START
exit
fi
;;

其中:

ZOOMAIN 是启动程序的入口,其类为:

org.apache.zookeeper.server.quorum.QuorumPeerMain

它的启动方法为:

 /**
* To start the replicated server specify the configuration file name on
* the command line.
* @param args path to the configfile
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
QuorumPeerMain main = new QuorumPeerMain();
try {
main.initializeAndRun(args);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
LOG.error("Invalid arguments, exiting abnormally", e);
LOG.info(USAGE);
System.err.println(USAGE);
System.exit(2);
} catch (ConfigException e) {
LOG.error("Invalid config, exiting abnormally", e);
System.err.println("Invalid config, exiting abnormally");
System.exit(2);
} catch (DatadirException e) {
LOG.error("Unable to access datadir, exiting abnormally", e);
System.err.println("Unable to access datadir, exiting abnormally");
System.exit(3);
} catch (AdminServerException e) {
LOG.error("Unable to start AdminServer, exiting abnormally", e);
System.err.println("Unable to start AdminServer, exiting abnormally");
System.exit(4);
} catch (Exception e) {
LOG.error("Unexpected exception, exiting abnormally", e);
System.exit(1);
}
LOG.info("Exiting normally");
System.exit(0);
}

调用初始化方法及run方法:

    protected void initializeAndRun(String[] args)
throws ConfigException, IOException, AdminServerException
{
QuorumPeerConfig config = new QuorumPeerConfig();
if (args.length == 1) {
config.parse(args[0]);
} // Start and schedule the the purge task
DatadirCleanupManager purgeMgr = new DatadirCleanupManager(config
.getDataDir(), config.getDataLogDir(), config
.getSnapRetainCount(), config.getPurgeInterval());
purgeMgr.start(); if (args.length == 1 && config.isDistributed()) {
runFromConfig(config);
} else {
LOG.warn("Either no config or no quorum defined in config, running "
+ " in standalone mode");
// there is only server in the quorum -- run as standalone
ZooKeeperServerMain.main(args);
}
}

上述代码主要分3部分:

1. 解析配置文件,默认的配置文件为上一级目录

config/zookeeper.properties或者config/zookeeper.cfg
  /**
* Parse a ZooKeeper configuration file
* @param path the patch of the configuration file
* @throws ConfigException error processing configuration
*/
public void parse(String path) throws ConfigException {
LOG.info("Reading configuration from: " + path); try {
File configFile = (new VerifyingFileFactory.Builder(LOG)
.warnForRelativePath()
.failForNonExistingPath()
.build()).create(path); Properties cfg = new Properties();
FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(configFile);
try {
cfg.load(in);
configFileStr = path;
} finally {
in.close();
} parseProperties(cfg);
} catch (IOException e) {
throw new ConfigException("Error processing " + path, e);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
throw new ConfigException("Error processing " + path, e);
} if (dynamicConfigFileStr!=null) {
try {
Properties dynamicCfg = new Properties();
FileInputStream inConfig = new FileInputStream(dynamicConfigFileStr);
try {
dynamicCfg.load(inConfig);
if (dynamicCfg.getProperty("version") != null) {
throw new ConfigException("dynamic file shouldn't have version inside");
} String version = getVersionFromFilename(dynamicConfigFileStr);
// If there isn't any version associated with the filename,
// the default version is 0.
if (version != null) {
dynamicCfg.setProperty("version", version);
}
} finally {
inConfig.close();
}
setupQuorumPeerConfig(dynamicCfg, false); } catch (IOException e) {
throw new ConfigException("Error processing " + dynamicConfigFileStr, e);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
throw new ConfigException("Error processing " + dynamicConfigFileStr, e);
}
File nextDynamicConfigFile = new File(configFileStr + nextDynamicConfigFileSuffix);
if (nextDynamicConfigFile.exists()) {
try {
Properties dynamicConfigNextCfg = new Properties();
FileInputStream inConfigNext = new FileInputStream(nextDynamicConfigFile);
try {
dynamicConfigNextCfg.load(inConfigNext);
} finally {
inConfigNext.close();
}
boolean isHierarchical = false;
for (Entry<Object, Object> entry : dynamicConfigNextCfg.entrySet()) {
String key = entry.getKey().toString().trim();
if (key.startsWith("group") || key.startsWith("weight")) {
isHierarchical = true;
break;
}
}
lastSeenQuorumVerifier = createQuorumVerifier(dynamicConfigNextCfg, isHierarchical);
} catch (IOException e) {
LOG.warn("NextQuorumVerifier is initiated to null");
}
}
}
}

2. 启动安排清除任务

        // Start and schedule the the purge task
DatadirCleanupManager purgeMgr = new DatadirCleanupManager(config
.getDataDir(), config.getDataLogDir(), config
.getSnapRetainCount(), config.getPurgeInterval());
purgeMgr.start();

调用start方法:

/**
* Validates the purge configuration and schedules the purge task. Purge
* task keeps the most recent <code>snapRetainCount</code> number of
* snapshots and deletes the remaining for every <code>purgeInterval</code>
* hour(s).
* <p>
* <code>purgeInterval</code> of <code>0</code> or
* <code>negative integer</code> will not schedule the purge task.
* </p>
*
* @see PurgeTxnLog#purge(File, File, int)
*/
public void start() {
if (PurgeTaskStatus.STARTED == purgeTaskStatus) {
LOG.warn("Purge task is already running.");
return;
}
// Don't schedule the purge task with zero or negative purge interval.
if (purgeInterval <= 0) {
LOG.info("Purge task is not scheduled.");
return;
} timer = new Timer("PurgeTask", true);
TimerTask task = new PurgeTask(dataLogDir, snapDir, snapRetainCount);
timer.scheduleAtFixedRate(task, 0, TimeUnit.HOURS.toMillis(purgeInterval)); purgeTaskStatus = PurgeTaskStatus.STARTED;
}

从上面代码可以看到,清除工作启动了一个定时器timer,PurgeTask继承实现了TimeTask(一个可以被定时器安排执行一次或者多次的task),PurgeTask的实现如下:

    static class PurgeTask extends TimerTask {
private File logsDir;
private File snapsDir;
private int snapRetainCount; public PurgeTask(File dataDir, File snapDir, int count) {
logsDir = dataDir;
snapsDir = snapDir;
snapRetainCount = count;
} @Override
public void run() {
LOG.info("Purge task started.");
try {
PurgeTxnLog.purge(logsDir, snapsDir, snapRetainCount);
} catch (Exception e) {
LOG.error("Error occured while purging.", e);
}
LOG.info("Purge task completed.");
}
}

调用purge方法:

/**
* Purges the snapshot and logs keeping the last num snapshots and the
* corresponding logs. If logs are rolling or a new snapshot is created
* during this process, these newest N snapshots or any data logs will be
* excluded from current purging cycle.
*
* @param dataDir the dir that has the logs
* @param snapDir the dir that has the snapshots
* @param num the number of snapshots to keep
* @throws IOException
*/
public static void purge(File dataDir, File snapDir, int num) throws IOException {
if (num < 3) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException(COUNT_ERR_MSG);
} FileTxnSnapLog txnLog = new FileTxnSnapLog(dataDir, snapDir); List<File> snaps = txnLog.findNRecentSnapshots(num);
retainNRecentSnapshots(txnLog, snaps);
}

先获取日志文件和快照,然后调用retainNRecentSnapshots方法处理:

 static void retainNRecentSnapshots(FileTxnSnapLog txnLog, List<File> snaps) {
// found any valid recent snapshots?
if (snaps.size() == 0)
return;
File snapShot = snaps.get(snaps.size() -1);
final long leastZxidToBeRetain = Util.getZxidFromName(
snapShot.getName(), PREFIX_SNAPSHOT); class MyFileFilter implements FileFilter{
private final String prefix;
MyFileFilter(String prefix){
this.prefix=prefix;
}
public boolean accept(File f){
if(!f.getName().startsWith(prefix + "."))
return false;
long fZxid = Util.getZxidFromName(f.getName(), prefix);
if (fZxid >= leastZxidToBeRetain) {
return false;
}
return true;
}
}
// add all non-excluded log files
List<File> files = new ArrayList<File>(Arrays.asList(txnLog
.getDataDir().listFiles(new MyFileFilter(PREFIX_LOG))));
// add all non-excluded snapshot files to the deletion list
files.addAll(Arrays.asList(txnLog.getSnapDir().listFiles(
new MyFileFilter(PREFIX_SNAPSHOT))));
// remove the old files
for(File f: files)
{
System.out.println("Removing file: "+
DateFormat.getDateTimeInstance().format(f.lastModified())+
"\t"+f.getPath());
if(!f.delete()){
System.err.println("Failed to remove "+f.getPath());
}
} }

3. 启动zookeeper 服务器

3.1 启动单机

   /*
* Start up the ZooKeeper server.
*
* @param args the configfile or the port datadir [ticktime]
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {
ZooKeeperServerMain main = new ZooKeeperServerMain();
try {
main.initializeAndRun(args);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
LOG.error("Invalid arguments, exiting abnormally", e);
LOG.info(USAGE);
System.err.println(USAGE);
System.exit(2);
} catch (ConfigException e) {
LOG.error("Invalid config, exiting abnormally", e);
System.err.println("Invalid config, exiting abnormally");
System.exit(2);
} catch (DatadirException e) {
LOG.error("Unable to access datadir, exiting abnormally", e);
System.err.println("Unable to access datadir, exiting abnormally");
System.exit(3);
} catch (AdminServerException e) {
LOG.error("Unable to start AdminServer, exiting abnormally", e);
System.err.println("Unable to start AdminServer, exiting abnormally");
System.exit(4);
} catch (Exception e) {
LOG.error("Unexpected exception, exiting abnormally", e);
System.exit(1);
}
LOG.info("Exiting normally");
System.exit(0);
}

调用方法:

   protected void initializeAndRun(String[] args)
throws ConfigException, IOException, AdminServerException
{
try {
ManagedUtil.registerLog4jMBeans();
} catch (JMException e) {
LOG.warn("Unable to register log4j JMX control", e);
} ServerConfig config = new ServerConfig();
if (args.length == 1) {
config.parse(args[0]);
} else {
config.parse(args);
} runFromConfig(config);
}

启动过程:

 /**
* Run from a ServerConfig.
* @param config ServerConfig to use.
* @throws IOException
* @throws AdminServerException
*/
public void runFromConfig(ServerConfig config) throws IOException, AdminServerException {
LOG.info("Starting server");
FileTxnSnapLog txnLog = null;
try {
// Note that this thread isn't going to be doing anything else,
// so rather than spawning another thread, we will just call
// run() in this thread.
// create a file logger url from the command line args
txnLog = new FileTxnSnapLog(config.dataLogDir, config.dataDir);
ZooKeeperServer zkServer = new ZooKeeperServer( txnLog,
config.tickTime, config.minSessionTimeout, config.maxSessionTimeout, null); // Start Admin server
adminServer = AdminServerFactory.createAdminServer();
adminServer.setZooKeeperServer(zkServer);
adminServer.start(); boolean needStartZKServer = true;
if (config.getClientPortAddress() != null) {
cnxnFactory = ServerCnxnFactory.createFactory();
cnxnFactory.configure(config.getClientPortAddress(), config.getMaxClientCnxns(), false);
cnxnFactory.startup(zkServer);
// zkServer has been started. So we don't need to start it again in secureCnxnFactory.
needStartZKServer = false;
}
if (config.getSecureClientPortAddress() != null) {
secureCnxnFactory = ServerCnxnFactory.createFactory();
secureCnxnFactory.configure(config.getSecureClientPortAddress(), config.getMaxClientCnxns(), true);
secureCnxnFactory.startup(zkServer, needStartZKServer);
} containerManager = new ContainerManager(zkServer.getZKDatabase(), zkServer.firstProcessor,
Integer.getInteger("znode.container.checkIntervalMs", (int) TimeUnit.MINUTES.toMillis(1)),
Integer.getInteger("znode.container.maxPerMinute", 10000)
);
containerManager.start(); if (cnxnFactory != null) {
cnxnFactory.join();
}
if (secureCnxnFactory != null) {
secureCnxnFactory.join();
} if (zkServer.isRunning()) {
zkServer.shutdown();
}
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
// warn, but generally this is ok
LOG.warn("Server interrupted", e);
} finally {
if (txnLog != null) {
txnLog.close();
}
}
}
cnxnFactory.startup(zkServer);[NettyServerCnxnFactory]
    @Override
public void startup(ZooKeeperServer zks, boolean startServer)
throws IOException, InterruptedException {
start();
setZooKeeperServer(zks);
if (startServer) {
zks.startdata();
zks.startup();
}
}
    public synchronized void startup() {
if (sessionTracker == null) {
createSessionTracker();
}
startSessionTracker();
setupRequestProcessors(); registerJMX(); state = State.RUNNING;
notifyAll();
} protected void setupRequestProcessors() {
RequestProcessor finalProcessor = new FinalRequestProcessor(this);
RequestProcessor syncProcessor = new SyncRequestProcessor(this,
finalProcessor);
((SyncRequestProcessor)syncProcessor).start();
firstProcessor = new PrepRequestProcessor(this, syncProcessor);
((PrepRequestProcessor)firstProcessor).start();
}

3.2 集群启动

 public void runFromConfig(QuorumPeerConfig config) throws IOException, AdminServerException {
try {
ManagedUtil.registerLog4jMBeans();
} catch (JMException e) {
LOG.warn("Unable to register log4j JMX control", e);
} LOG.info("Starting quorum peer");
try {
ServerCnxnFactory cnxnFactory = null;
ServerCnxnFactory secureCnxnFactory = null; if (config.getClientPortAddress() != null) {
cnxnFactory = ServerCnxnFactory.createFactory();
cnxnFactory.configure(config.getClientPortAddress(),
config.getMaxClientCnxns(),
false);
} if (config.getSecureClientPortAddress() != null) {
secureCnxnFactory = ServerCnxnFactory.createFactory();
secureCnxnFactory.configure(config.getSecureClientPortAddress(),
config.getMaxClientCnxns(),
true);
} quorumPeer = new QuorumPeer();
quorumPeer.setTxnFactory(new FileTxnSnapLog(
config.getDataLogDir(),
config.getDataDir()));
quorumPeer.enableLocalSessions(config.areLocalSessionsEnabled());
quorumPeer.enableLocalSessionsUpgrading(
config.isLocalSessionsUpgradingEnabled());
//quorumPeer.setQuorumPeers(config.getAllMembers());
quorumPeer.setElectionType(config.getElectionAlg());
quorumPeer.setMyid(config.getServerId());
quorumPeer.setTickTime(config.getTickTime());
quorumPeer.setMinSessionTimeout(config.getMinSessionTimeout());
quorumPeer.setMaxSessionTimeout(config.getMaxSessionTimeout());
quorumPeer.setInitLimit(config.getInitLimit());
quorumPeer.setSyncLimit(config.getSyncLimit());
quorumPeer.setConfigFileName(config.getConfigFilename());
quorumPeer.setZKDatabase(new ZKDatabase(quorumPeer.getTxnFactory()));
quorumPeer.setQuorumVerifier(config.getQuorumVerifier(), false);
if (config.getLastSeenQuorumVerifier()!=null) {
quorumPeer.setLastSeenQuorumVerifier(config.getLastSeenQuorumVerifier(), false);
}
quorumPeer.initConfigInZKDatabase();
quorumPeer.setCnxnFactory(cnxnFactory);
quorumPeer.setSecureCnxnFactory(secureCnxnFactory);
quorumPeer.setLearnerType(config.getPeerType());
quorumPeer.setSyncEnabled(config.getSyncEnabled());
quorumPeer.setQuorumListenOnAllIPs(config.getQuorumListenOnAllIPs()); quorumPeer.start();
quorumPeer.join();
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
// warn, but generally this is ok
LOG.warn("Quorum Peer interrupted", e);
}
}

从上述代码可以看出,QuorumPeer的start()方法和join()方法是主流程。

QuorumPeer继承了ZooKeeperThread,ZooKeeperThread继承自Thread,故QuorumPeer间接继承了Thread。

    @Override
public synchronized void start() {
if (!getView().containsKey(myid)) {
throw new RuntimeException("My id " + myid + " not in the peer list");
}
loadDataBase();
startServerCnxnFactory();
try {
adminServer.start();
} catch (AdminServerException e) {
LOG.warn("Problem starting AdminServer", e);
System.out.println(e);
}
startLeaderElection();
super.start();
}

3.2.1. 启动时先从内存数据库中恢复数据

 private void loadDataBase() {
try {
zkDb.loadDataBase(); // load the epochs
long lastProcessedZxid = zkDb.getDataTree().lastProcessedZxid;
long epochOfZxid = ZxidUtils.getEpochFromZxid(lastProcessedZxid);
try {
currentEpoch = readLongFromFile(CURRENT_EPOCH_FILENAME);
} catch(FileNotFoundException e) {
// pick a reasonable epoch number
// this should only happen once when moving to a
// new code version
currentEpoch = epochOfZxid;
LOG.info(CURRENT_EPOCH_FILENAME
+ " not found! Creating with a reasonable default of {}. This should only happen when you are upgrading your installation",
currentEpoch);
writeLongToFile(CURRENT_EPOCH_FILENAME, currentEpoch);
}
if (epochOfZxid > currentEpoch) {
throw new IOException("The current epoch, " + ZxidUtils.zxidToString(currentEpoch) + ", is older than the last zxid, " + lastProcessedZxid);
}
try {
acceptedEpoch = readLongFromFile(ACCEPTED_EPOCH_FILENAME);
} catch(FileNotFoundException e) {
// pick a reasonable epoch number
// this should only happen once when moving to a
// new code version
acceptedEpoch = epochOfZxid;
LOG.info(ACCEPTED_EPOCH_FILENAME
+ " not found! Creating with a reasonable default of {}. This should only happen when you are upgrading your installation",
acceptedEpoch);
writeLongToFile(ACCEPTED_EPOCH_FILENAME, acceptedEpoch);
}
if (acceptedEpoch < currentEpoch) {
throw new IOException("The accepted epoch, " + ZxidUtils.zxidToString(acceptedEpoch) + " is less than the current epoch, " + ZxidUtils.zxidToString(currentEpoch));
}
} catch(IOException ie) {
LOG.error("Unable to load database on disk", ie);
throw new RuntimeException("Unable to run quorum server ", ie);
}
}

调用

 /**
* load the database from the disk onto memory and also add
* the transactions to the committedlog in memory.
* @return the last valid zxid on disk
* @throws IOException
*/
public long loadDataBase() throws IOException {
PlayBackListener listener=new PlayBackListener(){
public void onTxnLoaded(TxnHeader hdr,Record txn){
Request r = new Request(0, hdr.getCxid(),hdr.getType(), hdr, txn, hdr.getZxid());
addCommittedProposal(r);
}
}; long zxid = snapLog.restore(dataTree,sessionsWithTimeouts,listener);
initialized = true;
return zxid;
} /**
* maintains a list of last <i>committedLog</i>
* or so committed requests. This is used for
* fast follower synchronization.
* @param request committed request
*/
public void addCommittedProposal(Request request) {
WriteLock wl = logLock.writeLock();
try {
wl.lock();
if (committedLog.size() > commitLogCount) {
committedLog.removeFirst();
minCommittedLog = committedLog.getFirst().packet.getZxid();
}
if (committedLog.isEmpty()) {
minCommittedLog = request.zxid;
maxCommittedLog = request.zxid;
} ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
BinaryOutputArchive boa = BinaryOutputArchive.getArchive(baos);
try {
request.getHdr().serialize(boa, "hdr");
if (request.getTxn() != null) {
request.getTxn().serialize(boa, "txn");
}
baos.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
LOG.error("This really should be impossible", e);
}
QuorumPacket pp = new QuorumPacket(Leader.PROPOSAL, request.zxid,
baos.toByteArray(), null);
Proposal p = new Proposal();
p.packet = pp;
p.request = request;
committedLog.add(p);
maxCommittedLog = p.packet.getZxid();
} finally {
wl.unlock();
}
}

3.2.2 启动NettyServerCnxnFactory绑定服务

    @Override
public void start() {
LOG.info("binding to port " + localAddress);
parentChannel = bootstrap.bind(localAddress);
}

3.2.3 选举算法

 synchronized public void startLeaderElection() {
try {
if (getPeerState() == ServerState.LOOKING) {
currentVote = new Vote(myid, getLastLoggedZxid(), getCurrentEpoch());
}
} catch(IOException e) {
RuntimeException re = new RuntimeException(e.getMessage());
re.setStackTrace(e.getStackTrace());
throw re;
} // if (!getView().containsKey(myid)) {
// throw new RuntimeException("My id " + myid + " not in the peer list");
//}
if (electionType == 0) {
try {
udpSocket = new DatagramSocket(myQuorumAddr.getPort());
responder = new ResponderThread();
responder.start();
} catch (SocketException e) {
throw new RuntimeException(e);
}
}
this.electionAlg = createElectionAlgorithm(electionType);
}

调用

  @SuppressWarnings("deprecation")
protected Election createElectionAlgorithm(int electionAlgorithm){
Election le=null; //TODO: use a factory rather than a switch
switch (electionAlgorithm) {
case 0:
le = new LeaderElection(this);
break;
case 1:
le = new AuthFastLeaderElection(this);
break;
case 2:
le = new AuthFastLeaderElection(this, true);
break;
case 3:
qcm = new QuorumCnxManager(this);
QuorumCnxManager.Listener listener = qcm.listener;
if(listener != null){
listener.start();
FastLeaderElection fle = new FastLeaderElection(this, qcm);
fle.start();
le = fle;
} else {
LOG.error("Null listener when initializing cnx manager");
}
break;
default:
assert false;
}
return le;
}

调用选举方法:

/**
* Starts a new round of leader election. Whenever our QuorumPeer
* changes its state to LOOKING, this method is invoked, and it
* sends notifications to all other peers.
*/
public Vote lookForLeader() throws InterruptedException {
try {
self.jmxLeaderElectionBean = new LeaderElectionBean();
MBeanRegistry.getInstance().register(
self.jmxLeaderElectionBean, self.jmxLocalPeerBean);
} catch (Exception e) {
LOG.warn("Failed to register with JMX", e);
self.jmxLeaderElectionBean = null;
}
if (self.start_fle == 0) {
self.start_fle = Time.currentElapsedTime();
}
try {
HashMap<Long, Vote> recvset = new HashMap<Long, Vote>(); HashMap<Long, Vote> outofelection = new HashMap<Long, Vote>(); int notTimeout = finalizeWait; synchronized(this){
logicalclock.incrementAndGet();
updateProposal(getInitId(), getInitLastLoggedZxid(), getPeerEpoch());
} LOG.info("New election. My id = " + self.getId() +
", proposed zxid=0x" + Long.toHexString(proposedZxid));
sendNotifications(); /*
* Loop in which we exchange notifications until we find a leader
*/ while ((self.getPeerState() == ServerState.LOOKING) &&
(!stop)){
/*
* Remove next notification from queue, times out after 2 times
* the termination time
*/
Notification n = recvqueue.poll(notTimeout,
TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS); /*
* Sends more notifications if haven't received enough.
* Otherwise processes new notification.
*/
if(n == null){
if(manager.haveDelivered()){
sendNotifications();
} else {
manager.connectAll();
} /*
* Exponential backoff
*/
int tmpTimeOut = notTimeout*2;
notTimeout = (tmpTimeOut < maxNotificationInterval?
tmpTimeOut : maxNotificationInterval);
LOG.info("Notification time out: " + notTimeout);
}
else if (self.getCurrentAndNextConfigVoters().contains(n.sid)) {
/*
* Only proceed if the vote comes from a replica in the current or next
* voting view.
*/
switch (n.state) {
case LOOKING:
// If notification > current, replace and send messages out
if (n.electionEpoch > logicalclock.get()) {
logicalclock.set(n.electionEpoch);
recvset.clear();
if(totalOrderPredicate(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch,
getInitId(), getInitLastLoggedZxid(), getPeerEpoch())) {
updateProposal(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch);
} else {
updateProposal(getInitId(),
getInitLastLoggedZxid(),
getPeerEpoch());
}
sendNotifications();
} else if (n.electionEpoch < logicalclock.get()) {
if(LOG.isDebugEnabled()){
LOG.debug("Notification election epoch is smaller than logicalclock. n.electionEpoch = 0x"
+ Long.toHexString(n.electionEpoch)
+ ", logicalclock=0x" + Long.toHexString(logicalclock.get()));
}
break;
} else if (totalOrderPredicate(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch,
proposedLeader, proposedZxid, proposedEpoch)) {
updateProposal(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch);
sendNotifications();
} if(LOG.isDebugEnabled()){
LOG.debug("Adding vote: from=" + n.sid +
", proposed leader=" + n.leader +
", proposed zxid=0x" + Long.toHexString(n.zxid) +
", proposed election epoch=0x" + Long.toHexString(n.electionEpoch));
} recvset.put(n.sid, new Vote(n.leader, n.zxid, n.electionEpoch, n.peerEpoch)); if (termPredicate(recvset,
new Vote(proposedLeader, proposedZxid,
logicalclock.get(), proposedEpoch))) { // Verify if there is any change in the proposed leader
while((n = recvqueue.poll(finalizeWait,
TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)) != null){
if(totalOrderPredicate(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch,
proposedLeader, proposedZxid, proposedEpoch)){
recvqueue.put(n);
break;
}
} /*
* This predicate is true once we don't read any new
* relevant message from the reception queue
*/
if (n == null) {
self.setPeerState((proposedLeader == self.getId()) ?
ServerState.LEADING: learningState()); Vote endVote = new Vote(proposedLeader,
proposedZxid, proposedEpoch);
leaveInstance(endVote);
return endVote;
}
}
break;
case OBSERVING:
LOG.debug("Notification from observer: " + n.sid);
break;
case FOLLOWING:
case LEADING:
/*
* Consider all notifications from the same epoch
* together.
*/
if(n.electionEpoch == logicalclock.get()){
recvset.put(n.sid, new Vote(n.leader, n.zxid, n.electionEpoch, n.peerEpoch));
if(termPredicate(recvset, new Vote(n.leader,
n.zxid, n.electionEpoch, n.peerEpoch, n.state))
&& checkLeader(outofelection, n.leader, n.electionEpoch)) {
self.setPeerState((n.leader == self.getId()) ?
ServerState.LEADING: learningState()); Vote endVote = new Vote(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch);
leaveInstance(endVote);
return endVote;
}
} /*
* Before joining an established ensemble, verify that
* a majority are following the same leader.
* Only peer epoch is used to check that the votes come
* from the same ensemble. This is because there is at
* least one corner case in which the ensemble can be
* created with inconsistent zxid and election epoch
* info. However, given that only one ensemble can be
* running at a single point in time and that each
* epoch is used only once, using only the epoch to
* compare the votes is sufficient.
*
* @see https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/ZOOKEEPER-1732
*/
outofelection.put(n.sid, new Vote(n.leader,
IGNOREVALUE, IGNOREVALUE, n.peerEpoch, n.state));
if (termPredicate(outofelection, new Vote(n.leader,
IGNOREVALUE, IGNOREVALUE, n.peerEpoch, n.state))
&& checkLeader(outofelection, n.leader, IGNOREVALUE)) {
synchronized(this){
logicalclock.set(n.electionEpoch);
self.setPeerState((n.leader == self.getId()) ?
ServerState.LEADING: learningState());
}
Vote endVote = new Vote(n.leader, n.zxid, n.peerEpoch);
leaveInstance(endVote);
return endVote;
}
break;
default:
LOG.warn("Notification state unrecoginized: " + n.state
+ " (n.state), " + n.sid + " (n.sid)");
break;
}
} else {
LOG.warn("Ignoring notification from non-cluster member " + n.sid);
}
}
return null;
} finally {
try {
if(self.jmxLeaderElectionBean != null){
MBeanRegistry.getInstance().unregister(
self.jmxLeaderElectionBean);
}
} catch (Exception e) {
LOG.warn("Failed to unregister with JMX", e);
}
self.jmxLeaderElectionBean = null;
}
}

4. 小结

  本文先介绍了zookeeper开源分布式协作系统及其特点、应用场景,然后根据zookeeper的启动方式,找到zookeeper的入口。在入口方法中,单机启动使用ZooKeeperServerMain,最终调用ZookeeperServer的startup()方法来RequestProcessor;集群启动时调用QuorumPeer的start方法,接着也是调用ZookeeperServer的startup()方法来RequestProcessor,最后调用选举算法选出leader。

参考文献:

【1】http://zookeeper.apache.org/doc/r3.4.6/zookeeperOver.html

【2】http://zookeeper.apache.org/doc/r3.4.6/zookeeperStarted.html

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