目录

在线教育平台(一)      在线教育平台(二)

在线教育平台(三)      在线教育平台(四)

在线教育平台(五)      在线教育平台(六)

在线教育平台(七)      在线教育平台(八)

在线教育平台(九)      在线教育平台(十)

代码

github下载

在线演示

教程

学习自慕课网-使用python3.x与Django2.0.1开发的在线教育平台

三、xadmin后台管理

3.1.xadmin的安装

django2.0的安装(源码安装方式):

https://github.com/sshwsfc/xadmin/tree/django2

把zip文件放到pip目录下,运行下面命令安装:

pip install xadmin-django2
是文件README.rst 出现了 Unicode 解码错误,这个文件是没有什么用处的,可以新建一个同名的空白文件替换掉

 首先下载zip源码包:github.com/sshwsfc/xadmin

 解压后,打开README.rst文件,清空里面的内容,然后保存。

再压缩成zip,放到pip目录下:C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36\Lib\site-packages\pip

此时打开cmd进行安装:pip install xadmin-master.zip

其它版本

如果上面安装提示Runtime错误:

更换安装源(使用豆瓣源)

pip install -i https://pypi.douban.com/simple xadmin-django2

安装成功后,同时也安装了很多依赖的包。

3.2.xadmin的设置

(1)新建Python Package "extra_apps",把源码xadmin文件夹放到extra_apps文件夹下面,此时目录结构如下:

(2)把extra_apps右键mark为Source Root并在settings中加入

sys.path.insert(0,os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'extra_apps'))

(3)因为我们用源码的xadmin,所以要卸载之前安装的

pip uninstall xadmin

(4)配置路由

把admin改成xadmin

# urls.py

from django.urls import path

import xadmin

urlpatterns = [
path('xadmin/', xadmin.site.urls),
]

(5)注册app

把下面两个app注册到settings.py的INSTALLED_APPS中

'xadmin',
'crispy_forms'

(6)重新生成数据库

python manage.py makemigrations

python manage.py migrate

(7)设置成中文

LANGUAGE_CODE = 'zh-hans'

TIME_ZONE = 'Asia/Shanghai'

USE_I18N = True

USE_L10N = True

USE_TZ = False

(8)创建一个管理员用户

python manage.py createsuperuser

现在就可以运行了

python manage.py runserver 

访问后台:http://127.0.0.1:8000/xadmin

可以看到成功进入管理界面

datetimefield报错问题解决:

当我们点增加用户信息,会报错

可以看到报的是xadmin/widgets中第80行

 def render(self, name, value, attrs=None):
input_html = [ht for ht in super(AdminSplitDateTime, self).render(name, value, attrs).split('\n') if ht != '']
# return input_html
return mark_safe('<div class="datetime clearfix"><div class="input-group date bootstrap-datepicker"><span class="input-group-addon"><i class="fa fa-calendar"></i></span>%s'
'<span class="input-group-btn"><button class="btn btn-default" type="button">%s</button></span></div>'
'<div class="input-group time bootstrap-clockpicker"><span class="input-group-addon"><i class="fa fa-clock-o">'
'</i></span>%s<span class="input-group-btn"><button class="btn btn-default" type="button">%s</button></span></div></div>' % (input_html[0], _(u'Today'), input_html[1], _(u'Now')))

上面贴出来的最后一行代码就是widgets.py的第80行代码。

可以看出这句代码是希望用“\n”把input_html里的两个标签拆开,但两个标签之间没有换行,所以没能拆分,导致报错。

input_html[1]就是报错的代码,因为input_html里只有一个元素。

解决办法:

既然“\n”不能拆分标签,那么就换一种拆分方式,使用“/><”拆分。

原代码:

input_html = [ht for ht in super(AdminSplitDateTime, self).render(name, value, attrs).split('\n') if ht != '']

修改后代码:

input_html = [ht for ht in super(AdminSplitDateTime, self).render(name, value, attrs).split('/><') if ht != '']
input_html[0] = input_html[0] + "/>"
input_html[1] = "<" + input_html[1]

再运行就正常了

3.3.users app的models注册

(1)在users下面创建adminx.py,代码如下:

# users/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import EmailVerifyRecord

#xadmin中这里是继承object,不再是继承admin
class EmailVerifyRecordAdmin(object):
pass xadmin.site.register(EmailVerifyRecord,EmailVerifyRecordAdmin)

(2)完善功能,增加显示字段,搜索和过滤

修改users/adminx.py,代码如下:

# users/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import EmailVerifyRecord

#xadmin中这里是继承object,不再是继承admin
class EmailVerifyRecordAdmin(object):
# 显示的列
list_display = ['code', 'email', 'send_type', 'send_time']
# 搜索的字段,不要添加时间搜索
search_fields = ['code', 'email', 'send_type']
# 过滤
list_filter = ['code', 'email', 'send_type', 'send_time'] xadmin.site.register(EmailVerifyRecord,EmailVerifyRecordAdmin)

刷新后的界面:

users中Banner也注册进去

class BannerAdmin(object):
list_display = ['title', 'image', 'url','index', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['title', 'image', 'url','index']
list_filter = ['title', 'image', 'url','index', 'add_time'] xadmin.site.register(Banner,BannerAdmin)

3.4.剩余app model注册

(1)course

代码如下: 注意外键

# course/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import Course, Lesson, Video, CourseResource

class CourseAdmin(object):
'''课程''' list_display = [ 'name','desc','detail','degree','learn_times','students']
search_fields = ['name', 'desc', 'detail', 'degree', 'students']
list_filter = [ 'name','desc','detail','degree','learn_times','students'] class LessonAdmin(object):
'''章节''' list_display = ['course', 'name', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['course', 'name']
#这里course__name是根据课程名称过滤
list_filter = ['course__name', 'name', 'add_time'] class VideoAdmin(object):
'''视频''' list_display = ['lesson', 'name', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['lesson', 'name']
list_filter = ['lesson', 'name', 'add_time'] class CourseResourceAdmin(object):
'''课程资源''' list_display = ['course', 'name', 'download', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['course', 'name', 'download']
list_filter = ['course__name', 'name', 'download', 'add_time'] # 将管理器与model进行注册关联
xadmin.site.register(Course, CourseAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Lesson, LessonAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Video, VideoAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(CourseResource, CourseResourceAdmin)

(2)organizations

代码如下:

# organization/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import CityDict, CourseOrg, Teacher

class CityDictAdmin(object):
'''城市''' list_display = ['name', 'desc', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['name', 'desc']
list_filter = ['name', 'desc', 'add_time'] class CourseOrgAdmin(object):
'''机构''' list_display = ['name', 'desc', 'click_nums', 'fav_nums','add_time' ]
search_fields = ['name', 'desc', 'click_nums', 'fav_nums']
list_filter = ['name', 'desc', 'click_nums', 'fav_nums','city__name','address','add_time'] class TeacherAdmin(object):
'''老师''' list_display = [ 'name','org', 'work_years', 'work_company','add_time']
search_fields = ['org', 'name', 'work_years', 'work_company']
list_filter = ['org__name', 'name', 'work_years', 'work_company','click_nums', 'fav_nums', 'add_time'] xadmin.site.register(CityDict, CityDictAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(CourseOrg, CourseOrgAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Teacher, TeacherAdmin)

(3)operation

代码如下:

# operation/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import UserAsk, UserCourse, UserMessage, CourseComments, UserFavorite

class UserAskAdmin(object):
'''用户表单我要学习''' list_display = ['name', 'mobile', 'course_name', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['name', 'mobile', 'course_name']
list_filter = ['name', 'mobile', 'course_name', 'add_time'] #
class UserCourseAdmin(object):
'''用户课程学习''' list_display = ['user', 'course', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'course']
list_filter = ['user', 'course', 'add_time'] class UserMessageAdmin(object):
'''用户消息后台''' list_display = ['user', 'message', 'has_read', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'message', 'has_read']
list_filter = ['user', 'message', 'has_read', 'add_time'] class CourseCommentsAdmin(object):
'''用户评论后台''' list_display = ['user', 'course', 'comments', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'course', 'comments']
list_filter = ['user', 'course', 'comments', 'add_time'] class UserFavoriteAdmin(object):
'''用户收藏后台''' list_display = ['user', 'fav_id', 'fav_type', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'fav_id', 'fav_type']
list_filter = ['user', 'fav_id', 'fav_type', 'add_time'] # 将后台管理器与models进行关联注册。
xadmin.site.register(UserAsk, UserAskAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(UserCourse, UserCourseAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(UserMessage, UserMessageAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(CourseComments, CourseCommentsAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(UserFavorite, UserFavoriteAdmin)

全部代码:

# users/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import EmailVerifyRecord,Banner

#xadmin中这里是继承object,不再是继承admin
class EmailVerifyRecordAdmin(object):
# 显示的列
list_display = ['code', 'email', 'send_type', 'send_time']
# 搜索的字段
search_fields = ['code', 'email', 'send_type']
# 过滤
list_filter = ['code', 'email', 'send_type', 'send_time'] class BannerAdmin(object):
list_display = ['title', 'image', 'url','index', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['title', 'image', 'url','index']
list_filter = ['title', 'image', 'url','index', 'add_time'] xadmin.site.register(EmailVerifyRecord,EmailVerifyRecordAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Banner,BannerAdmin)

users/adminx.py

# course/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import Course, Lesson, Video, CourseResource

# Course的admin管理器
class CourseAdmin(object):
'''课程''' list_display = [ 'name','desc','detail','degree','learn_times','students']
search_fields = ['name', 'desc', 'detail', 'degree', 'students']
list_filter = [ 'name','desc','detail','degree','learn_times','students'] class LessonAdmin(object):
'''章节''' list_display = ['course', 'name', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['course', 'name']
#这里course__name是根据课程名称过滤
list_filter = ['course__name', 'name', 'add_time'] class VideoAdmin(object):
'''视频''' list_display = ['lesson', 'name', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['lesson', 'name']
list_filter = ['lesson', 'name', 'add_time'] class CourseResourceAdmin(object):
'''课程资源''' list_display = ['course', 'name', 'download', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['course', 'name', 'download']
list_filter = ['course__name', 'name', 'download', 'add_time'] # 将管理器与model进行注册关联
xadmin.site.register(Course, CourseAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Lesson, LessonAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Video, VideoAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(CourseResource, CourseResourceAdmin)

course/adminx.py

# organization/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import CityDict, CourseOrg, Teacher

class CityDictAdmin(object):
'''城市''' list_display = ['name', 'desc', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['name', 'desc']
list_filter = ['name', 'desc', 'add_time'] class CourseOrgAdmin(object):
'''机构''' list_display = ['name', 'desc', 'click_nums', 'fav_nums','add_time' ]
search_fields = ['name', 'desc', 'click_nums', 'fav_nums']
list_filter = ['name', 'desc', 'click_nums', 'fav_nums','city__name','address','add_time'] class TeacherAdmin(object):
'''老师''' list_display = [ 'name','org', 'work_years', 'work_company','add_time']
search_fields = ['org', 'name', 'work_years', 'work_company']
list_filter = ['org__name', 'name', 'work_years', 'work_company','click_nums', 'fav_nums', 'add_time'] xadmin.site.register(CityDict, CityDictAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(CourseOrg, CourseOrgAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Teacher, TeacherAdmin)

organization/adminx.py

# operation/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import UserAsk, UserCourse, UserMessage, CourseComments, UserFavorite

class UserAskAdmin(object):
'''用户表单我要学习''' list_display = ['name', 'mobile', 'course_name', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['name', 'mobile', 'course_name']
list_filter = ['name', 'mobile', 'course_name', 'add_time'] #
class UserCourseAdmin(object):
'''用户课程学习''' list_display = ['user', 'course', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'course']
list_filter = ['user', 'course', 'add_time'] class UserMessageAdmin(object):
'''用户消息后台''' list_display = ['user', 'message', 'has_read', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'message', 'has_read']
list_filter = ['user', 'message', 'has_read', 'add_time'] class CourseCommentsAdmin(object):
'''用户评论后台''' list_display = ['user', 'course', 'comments', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'course', 'comments']
list_filter = ['user', 'course', 'comments', 'add_time'] class UserFavoriteAdmin(object):
'''用户收藏后台''' list_display = ['user', 'fav_id', 'fav_type', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['user', 'fav_id', 'fav_type']
list_filter = ['user', 'fav_id', 'fav_type', 'add_time'] # 将后台管理器与models进行关联注册。
xadmin.site.register(UserAsk, UserAskAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(UserCourse, UserCourseAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(UserMessage, UserMessageAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(CourseComments, CourseCommentsAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(UserFavorite, UserFavoriteAdmin)

operation/adminx.py

此时项目目录结构:

运行项目,进后台管理界面如下:

3.5.xadmin的全局配置

将全局配置修改:

  • 如左上角:django Xadmin。下面的我的公司
  • 主题修改,app名称汉化,菜单收叠。

使用Xadmin的主题功能。

把全站的配置放在users\adminx.py中:

(1)添加主题功能

from xadmin import views

# 创建xadmin的最基本管理器配置,并与view绑定
class BaseSetting(object):
# 开启主题功能
enable_themes = True
use_bootswatch = True # 将基本配置管理与view绑定
xadmin.site.register(views.BaseAdminView,BaseSetting)

没添加主题前,右上角界面

添加主题后,可以选择自己喜欢的主题

(2)全局配置

修改django admin 和下面的我的公司收起菜单

# 全局修改,固定写法
class GlobalSettings(object):
# 修改title
site_title = 'NBA后台管理界面'
# 修改footer
site_footer = '科比的公司'
# 收起菜单
menu_style = 'accordion' # 将title和footer信息进行注册
xadmin.site.register(views.CommAdminView,GlobalSettings)
# users/adminx.py

import xadmin

from .models import EmailVerifyRecord,Banner

from xadmin import views

# 创建xadmin的最基本管理器配置,并与view绑定
class BaseSetting(object):
# 开启主题功能
enable_themes = True
use_bootswatch = True # 全局修改,固定写法
class GlobalSettings(object):
# 修改title
site_title = 'NBA后台管理界面'
# 修改footer
site_footer = '科比的公司'
# 收起菜单
menu_style = 'accordion' #xadmin中这里是继承object,不再是继承admin
class EmailVerifyRecordAdmin(object):
# 显示的列
list_display = ['code', 'email', 'send_type', 'send_time']
# 搜索的字段
search_fields = ['code', 'email', 'send_type']
# 过滤
list_filter = ['code', 'email', 'send_type', 'send_time'] class BannerAdmin(object):
list_display = ['title', 'image', 'url','index', 'add_time']
search_fields = ['title', 'image', 'url','index']
list_filter = ['title', 'image', 'url','index', 'add_time'] xadmin.site.register(EmailVerifyRecord,EmailVerifyRecordAdmin)
xadmin.site.register(Banner,BannerAdmin) # 将基本配置管理与view绑定
xadmin.site.register(views.BaseAdminView,BaseSetting) # 将title和footer信息进行注册
xadmin.site.register(views.CommAdminView,GlobalSettings)

users/adminx.py全部代码

再进后台的界面,如下:

(3)修改app的名字

在apps.py里面配置app的显示名称

以users/apps.py为例,其它三个同样操作

默认apps.py里面的代码

from django.apps import AppConfig

class UsersConfig(AppConfig):
name = 'users'

修改后:

from django.apps import AppConfig

class UsersConfig(AppConfig):
name = 'users'
verbose_name = '用户'

还要在users/__init__.py中引用apps.py的配置

添加代码如下:

# users/__init__.py

default_app_config = 'users.apps.UsersConfig'

其它三个app也同样方法改成显示中文

大功告成

四、完成登录功能

4.1.首页和登录页面的配置

(1)把html文件中index.html拷贝到templates文件夹内

前端初始文件可以去我github上面下载:https://github.com/derek-zhang123/MxOnline

(2)新建static目录用来存放静态文件

在settings.py中设置路径

STATICFILES_DIRS = (
os.path.join(BASE_DIR,'static'),
)

(3)引用静态文件

使用ctrl+f查找出所有“../”, 然后ctrl+r 全部替换为“/static/”

(4)配置静态文件的url

MxOnline/urls.py中

# MxOnline/urls.py

import xadmin

from django.urls import path

from django.views.generic import TemplateView

urlpatterns = [
path('xadmin/', xadmin.site.urls),
path('', TemplateView.as_view(template_name='index.html'),name='index'),
]

(5)登录页面

把login.html拷贝到templates文件夹下

使用ctrl+f查找出所有“../”, 然后ctrl+r 全部替换为“/static/”

配置login的url

# MxOnline/urls.py

urlpatterns = [
path('xadmin/', xadmin.site.urls),
path('', TemplateView.as_view(template_name='index.html'),name='index'),
path('login/', TemplateView.as_view(template_name='login.html'),name='login'),
]

更改index.html里面跳转到登录界面的url

原始样子

<!-- <a style="color:white" class="fr registerbtn" href="register.html">注册</a> -->

<!-- <a style="color:white" class="fr loginbtn" href="login.html">登录</a>  -->

取消注释,将login.html改为“login/”

<a style="color:white" class="fr registerbtn" href="register.html">注册</a>
<a style="color:white" class="fr loginbtn" href="/login/">登录</a>

现在可以访问index页面,然后点‘’登录”,跳转到登录页面了

4.2.用户登录

(1)修改login的路由

from django.views.generic import TemplateView
from users import views urlpatterns = [
path('xadmin/', xadmin.site.urls),
path('', TemplateView.as_view(template_name='index.html'),name='index'),
path('login/',views.user_login,name = 'login'), #修改login路由
]

(2)写login的视图

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate,login def user_login(request):
if request.method == 'POST':
# 获取用户提交的用户名和密码
user_name = request.POST.get('username',None)
pass_word = request.POST.get('password',None)
# 成功返回user对象,失败None
user = authenticate(username=user_name,password=pass_word)
# 如果不是null说明验证成功
if user is not None:
# 登录
login(request,user)
return render(request,'index.html')
else:
return render(request,'login.html',{'msg':'用户名或密码错误'}) elif request.method == 'GET':
return render(request,'login.html')

(3)更改login.html

 <form action="/login/" method="post" autocomplete="off">
<input type='hidden' name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='mymQDzHWl2REXIfPMg2mJaLqDfaS1sD5' />
<div class="form-group marb20 ">
<label>用&nbsp;户&nbsp;名</label>
<input name="username" id="account_l" type="text" placeholder="手机号/邮箱" />
</div>
<div class="form-group marb8 ">
<label>密&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;码</label>
<input name="password" id="password_l" type="password" placeholder="请输入您的密码" />
</div>
<div class="error btns login-form-tips" id="jsLoginTips">{{ msg }}</div>
<div class="auto-box marb38"> <a class="fr" href="forgetpwd.html">忘记密码?</a>
</div>
<input class="btn btn-green" id="jsLoginBtn" type="submit" value="立即登录 > " />
<input type='hidden' name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='5I2SlleZJOMUX9QbwYLUIAOshdrdpRcy' />
{% csrf_token %}
</form>

login.html

如果用户登录错误,应该有提示错误信息,下面代码:

<div class="error btns login-form-tips" id="jsLoginTips">{{ msg }}</div>

(4)修改index.html

原始index.html的代码

<div  class=" header">
<div class="top">
<div class="wp">
<div class="fl"><p>服务电话:<b>33333333</b></p></div>
<!--登录后跳转--> <a style="color:white" class="fr registerbtn" href="register.html">注册</a>
<a style="color:white" class="fr loginbtn" href="/login/">登录</a> <div class="personal">
<dl class="user fr">
<dd>bobby<img class="down fr" src="/static/images/top_down.png"/></dd>
<dt><img width="20" height="20" src="/static/media/image/2016/12/default_big_14.png"/></dt>
</dl>
<div class="userdetail">
<dl>
<dt><img width="80" height="80" src="/static/media/image/2016/12/default_big_14.png"/></dt>
<dd>
<h2>django</h2>
<p>bobby</p>
</dd>
</dl>
<div class="btn">
<a class="personcenter fl" href="usercenter-info.html">进入个人中心</a>
<a class="fr" href="/logout/">退出</a>
</div>
</div>
</div> </div>
</div>

我们应该做个验证,当用户已登录状态的时候,显示用户姓名和图像及其个人中心信息

如果没有登录,则显示登录和注册

更改代码如下:

<div  class=" header">
<div class="top">
{% if request.user.is_authenticated %}
<div class="personal">
<dl class="user fr">
<dd>bobby<img class="down fr" src="/static/images/top_down.png"/></dd>
<dt><img width="20" height="20" src="/static/media/image/2016/12/default_big_14.png"/></dt>
</dl>
<div class="userdetail">
<dl>
<dt><img width="80" height="80" src="/static/media/image/2016/12/default_big_14.png"/></dt>
<dd>
<h2>django</h2>
<p>bobby</p>
</dd>
</dl>
<div class="btn">
<a class="personcenter fl" href="usercenter-info.html">进入个人中心</a>
<a class="fr" href="/logout/">退出</a>
</div>
</div>
</div>
{% else %}
<div class="wp">
<div class="fl"><p>服务电话:<b>33333333</b></p></div>
<!--登录后跳转--> <a style="color:white" class="fr registerbtn" href="register.html">注册</a>
<a style="color:white" class="fr loginbtn" href="/login/">登录</a> </div>
{% endif %}
</div>

index.html

(5)增加邮箱登录

让用户可以通过邮箱或者用户名都可以登录,用自定义authenticate方法

这里是继承ModelBackend类来做的验证

class ModelBackend:
"""
Authenticates against settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL.
""" def authenticate(self, request, username=None, password=None, **kwargs):
if username is None:
username = kwargs.get(UserModel.USERNAME_FIELD)
try:
user = UserModel._default_manager.get_by_natural_key(username)
except UserModel.DoesNotExist:
# Run the default password hasher once to reduce the timing
# difference between an existing and a nonexistent user (#20760).
UserModel().set_password(password)
else:
if user.check_password(password) and self.user_can_authenticate(user):
return user def user_can_authenticate(self, user):
"""
Reject users with is_active=False. Custom user models that don't have
that attribute are allowed.
"""
is_active = getattr(user, 'is_active', None)
return is_active or is_active is None def _get_user_permissions(self, user_obj):
return user_obj.user_permissions.all() def _get_group_permissions(self, user_obj):
user_groups_field = get_user_model()._meta.get_field('groups')
user_groups_query = 'group__%s' % user_groups_field.related_query_name()
return Permission.objects.filter(**{user_groups_query: user_obj}) def _get_permissions(self, user_obj, obj, from_name):
"""
Return the permissions of `user_obj` from `from_name`. `from_name` can
be either "group" or "user" to return permissions from
`_get_group_permissions` or `_get_user_permissions` respectively.
"""
if not user_obj.is_active or user_obj.is_anonymous or obj is not None:
return set() perm_cache_name = '_%s_perm_cache' % from_name
if not hasattr(user_obj, perm_cache_name):
if user_obj.is_superuser:
perms = Permission.objects.all()
else:
perms = getattr(self, '_get_%s_permissions' % from_name)(user_obj)
perms = perms.values_list('content_type__app_label', 'codename').order_by()
setattr(user_obj, perm_cache_name, {"%s.%s" % (ct, name) for ct, name in perms})
return getattr(user_obj, perm_cache_name) def get_user_permissions(self, user_obj, obj=None):
"""
Return a set of permission strings the user `user_obj` has from their
`user_permissions`.
"""
return self._get_permissions(user_obj, obj, 'user') def get_group_permissions(self, user_obj, obj=None):
"""
Return a set of permission strings the user `user_obj` has from the
groups they belong.
"""
return self._get_permissions(user_obj, obj, 'group') def get_all_permissions(self, user_obj, obj=None):
if not user_obj.is_active or user_obj.is_anonymous or obj is not None:
return set()
if not hasattr(user_obj, '_perm_cache'):
user_obj._perm_cache = set()
user_obj._perm_cache.update(self.get_user_permissions(user_obj))
user_obj._perm_cache.update(self.get_group_permissions(user_obj))
return user_obj._perm_cache def has_perm(self, user_obj, perm, obj=None):
if not user_obj.is_active:
return False
return perm in self.get_all_permissions(user_obj, obj) def has_module_perms(self, user_obj, app_label):
"""
Return True if user_obj has any permissions in the given app_label.
"""
if not user_obj.is_active:
return False
for perm in self.get_all_permissions(user_obj):
if perm[:perm.index('.')] == app_label:
return True
return False def get_user(self, user_id):
try:
user = UserModel._default_manager.get(pk=user_id)
except UserModel.DoesNotExist:
return None
return user if self.user_can_authenticate(user) else None

ModelBackend源码

from django.contrib.auth.backends import ModelBackend
from .models import UserProfile
from django.db.models import Q #邮箱和用户名都可以登录
# 基础ModelBackend类,因为它有authenticate方法
class CustomBackend(ModelBackend):
def authenticate(self, request, username=None, password=None, **kwargs):
try:
# 不希望用户存在两个,get只能有一个。两个是get失败的一种原因 Q为使用并集查询
user = UserProfile.objects.get(Q(username=username)|Q(email=username)) # django的后台中密码加密:所以不能password==password
# UserProfile继承的AbstractUser中有def check_password(self, raw_password):
if user.check_password(password):
return user
except Exception as e:
return None
# users/views.py

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate,login from django.contrib.auth.backends import ModelBackend
from .models import UserProfile
from django.db.models import Q #邮箱和用户名都可以登录
# 基础ModelBackend类,因为它有authenticate方法
class CustomBackend(ModelBackend):
def authenticate(self, request, username=None, password=None, **kwargs):
try:
# 不希望用户存在两个,get只能有一个。两个是get失败的一种原因 Q为使用并集查询
user = UserProfile.objects.get(Q(username=username)|Q(email=username)) # django的后台中密码加密:所以不能password==password
# UserProfile继承的AbstractUser中有def check_password(self, raw_password):
if user.check_password(password):
return user
except Exception as e:
return None def user_login(request):
if request.method == 'POST':
# 获取用户提交的用户名和密码
user_name = request.POST.get('username',None)
pass_word = request.POST.get('password',None)
# 成功返回user对象,失败None
user = authenticate(username=user_name,password=pass_word)
# 如果不是null说明验证成功
if user is not None:
# 登录
login(request,user)
return render(request,'index.html')
else:
return render(request,'login.html',{'msg':'用户名或密码错误'}) elif request.method == 'GET':
return render(request,'login.html')

users/views.py

MxOnline/settings.py添加如下代码:

AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS = (
'users.views.CustomBackend',
)

然后通过邮箱也可以实现登录了

4.3.用form实现登录

(1)把前面views中的user_login()函数改成基于类的形式

from django.views.generic.base import View

class LoginView(View):
def get(self,request):
return render(request, 'login.html') def post(self,request):
# 获取用户提交的用户名和密码
user_name = request.POST.get('username', None)
pass_word = request.POST.get('password', None)
# 成功返回user对象,失败None
user = authenticate(username=user_name, password=pass_word)
# 如果不是null说明验证成功
if user is not None:
# 登录
login(request, user)
return render(request, 'index.html')
else:
return render(request, 'login.html', {'msg': '用户名或密码错误'})

继承的View类

class View:
"""
Intentionally simple parent class for all views. Only implements
dispatch-by-method and simple sanity checking.
""" http_method_names = ['get', 'post', 'put', 'patch', 'delete', 'head', 'options', 'trace'] def __init__(self, **kwargs):
"""
Constructor. Called in the URLconf; can contain helpful extra
keyword arguments, and other things.
"""
# Go through keyword arguments, and either save their values to our
# instance, or raise an error.
for key, value in kwargs.items():
setattr(self, key, value) @classonlymethod
def as_view(cls, **initkwargs):
"""Main entry point for a request-response process."""
for key in initkwargs:
if key in cls.http_method_names:
raise TypeError("You tried to pass in the %s method name as a "
"keyword argument to %s(). Don't do that."
% (key, cls.__name__))
if not hasattr(cls, key):
raise TypeError("%s() received an invalid keyword %r. as_view "
"only accepts arguments that are already "
"attributes of the class." % (cls.__name__, key)) def view(request, *args, **kwargs):
self = cls(**initkwargs)
if hasattr(self, 'get') and not hasattr(self, 'head'):
self.head = self.get
self.request = request
self.args = args
self.kwargs = kwargs
return self.dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)
view.view_class = cls
view.view_initkwargs = initkwargs # take name and docstring from class
update_wrapper(view, cls, updated=()) # and possible attributes set by decorators
# like csrf_exempt from dispatch
update_wrapper(view, cls.dispatch, assigned=())
return view def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
# Try to dispatch to the right method; if a method doesn't exist,
# defer to the error handler. Also defer to the error handler if the
# request method isn't on the approved list.
if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(), self.http_method_not_allowed)
else:
handler = self.http_method_not_allowed
return handler(request, *args, **kwargs) def http_method_not_allowed(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
logger.warning(
'Method Not Allowed (%s): %s', request.method, request.path,
extra={'status_code': 405, 'request': request}
)
return HttpResponseNotAllowed(self._allowed_methods()) def options(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
"""Handle responding to requests for the OPTIONS HTTP verb."""
response = HttpResponse()
response['Allow'] = ', '.join(self._allowed_methods())
response['Content-Length'] = ''
return response def _allowed_methods(self):
return [m.upper() for m in self.http_method_names if hasattr(self, m)]

View类源码参考

基于类的urls配置

from users.views import LoginView

  path('login/',LoginView.as_view(),name = 'login'),

(2)users下新建form.py文件

代码如下:

# users/forms.py

from django import forms

# 登录表单验证
class LoginForm(forms.Form):
# 用户名密码不能为空
username = forms.CharField(required=True)
password = forms.CharField(required=True,min_length=5)

(3)定义好forms后利用它来做验证,并完善错误提示信息

from .forms import LoginForm

class LoginView(View):
def get(self,request):
return render(request, 'login.html') def post(self,request):
# 实例化
login_form = LoginForm(request.POST)
if login_form.is_valid():
# 获取用户提交的用户名和密码
user_name = request.POST.get('username', None)
pass_word = request.POST.get('password', None)
# 成功返回user对象,失败None
user = authenticate(username=user_name, password=pass_word)
# 如果不是null说明验证成功
if user is not None:
# 登录
login(request, user)
return render(request, 'index.html')
# 只有当用户名或密码不存在时,才返回错误信息到前端
else:
return render(request, 'login.html', {'msg': '用户名或密码错误','login_form':login_form}) # form.is_valid()已经判断不合法了,所以这里不需要再返回错误信息到前端了
else:
return render(request,'login.html',{'login_form':login_form})
# users/views.py

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate,login from django.contrib.auth.backends import ModelBackend
from .models import UserProfile
from django.db.models import Q
from django.views.generic.base import View
from .forms import LoginForm #邮箱和用户名都可以登录
# 基础ModelBackend类,因为它有authenticate方法
class CustomBackend(ModelBackend):
def authenticate(self, request, username=None, password=None, **kwargs):
try:
# 不希望用户存在两个,get只能有一个。两个是get失败的一种原因 Q为使用并集查询
user = UserProfile.objects.get(Q(username=username)|Q(email=username)) # django的后台中密码加密:所以不能password==password
# UserProfile继承的AbstractUser中有def check_password(self, raw_password):
if user.check_password(password):
return user
except Exception as e:
return None class LoginView(View):
def get(self,request):
return render(request, 'login.html') def post(self,request):
# 实例化
login_form = LoginForm(request.POST)
if login_form.is_valid():
# 获取用户提交的用户名和密码
user_name = request.POST.get('username', None)
pass_word = request.POST.get('password', None)
# 成功返回user对象,失败None
user = authenticate(username=user_name, password=pass_word)
# 如果不是null说明验证成功
if user is not None:
# 登录
login(request, user)
return render(request, 'index.html')
# 只有当用户名或密码不存在时,才返回错误信息到前端
else:
return render(request, 'login.html', {'msg': '用户名或密码错误','login_form':login_form}) # form.is_valid()已经判断不合法了,所以这里不需要再返回错误信息到前端了
else:
return render(request,'login.html',{'login_form':login_form})

views.py

(4)完善login.html的错误提示信息

<div class="form-group marb20 {% if login_form.errors.username %}errorput{% endif %}">
<label>用&nbsp;户&nbsp;名</label>
<input name="username" id="account_l" type="text" placeholder="手机号/邮箱" />
</div>
<div class="form-group marb8 {% if login_form.errors.username %}errorput{% endif %}">
<label>密&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;码</label>
<input name="password" id="password_l" type="password" placeholder="请输入您的密码" />
</div>
<div class="error btns login-form-tips" id="jsLoginTips">
{% for key,error in login_form.errors.items %}
{{ error }}
{% endfor %}
{{ msg }}
</div>

主要修改两处

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html> <head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="renderer" content="webkit">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=Edge,chrome=1" >
<title>慕学在线网登录</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/static/css/reset.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/static/css/login.css">
</head>
<body>
<div class="dialog" id="jsDialog">
<!--提示弹出框-->
<div class="successbox dialogbox" id="jsSuccessTips">
<h1>成功提交</h1>
<div class="close jsCloseDialog"><img src="/static/images/dig_close.png"/></div>
<div class="cont">
<h2>您的需求提交成功!</h2>
<p></p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="noactivebox dialogbox" id="jsUnactiveForm" >
<h1>邮件验证提示</h1>
<div class="close jsCloseDialog"><img src="/static/images/dig_close.png"/></div>
<div class="center">
<img src="/static/images/send.png"/>
<p>我们已经向您的邮箱<span class="green" id="jsEmailToActive">12@13.com</span>发送了邮件,<br/>为保证您的账号安全,请及时验证邮箱</p>
<p class="a"><a class="btn" id="jsGoToEmail" target="_blank" href="http://mail.qq.com">去邮箱验证</a></p>
<p class="zy_success upmove"></p>
<p style="display: none;" class="sendE2">没收到,您可以查看您的垃圾邮件和被过滤邮件,也可以再次发送验证邮件(<span class="c5c">60s</span>)</p>
<p class="sendE">没收到,您可以查看您的垃圾邮件和被过滤邮件,<br/>也可以<span class="c5c green" id="jsSenEmailAgin" style="cursor: pointer;">再次发送验证邮件</span></p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="bg" id="dialogBg"></div>
<header>
<div class="c-box fff-box">
<div class="wp header-box">
<p class="fl hd-tips">慕学在线网,在线学习平台!</p>
<ul class="fr hd-bar">
<li>服务电话:<span>33333333</span></li>
<li class="active"><a href="login.html">[登录]</a></li>
<li><a href="register.html">[注册]</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
</header>
<section>
<div class="c-box bg-box">
<div class="login-box clearfix">
<div class="hd-login clearfix">
<a class="index-logo" href="index.html"></a>
<h1>用户登录</h1>
<a class="index-font" href="index.html">回到首页</a>
</div>
<div class="fl slide">
<div class="imgslide">
<ul class="imgs">
<li><a href=""><img width="483" height="472" src="/static/images/mysql.jpg" /></a></li>
<li><a href=""><img width="483" height="472" src="/static/images/mysql.jpg" /></a></li>
<li><a href=""><img width="483" height="472" src="/static/images/mysql.jpg" /></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="unslider-arrow prev"></div>
<div class="unslider-arrow next"></div>
</div>
<div class="fl form-box">
<h2>帐号登录</h2>
<form action="/login/" method="post" autocomplete="off">
<input type='hidden' name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='mymQDzHWl2REXIfPMg2mJaLqDfaS1sD5' />
<div class="form-group marb20 {% if login_form.errors.username %}errorput{% endif %}">
<label>用&nbsp;户&nbsp;名</label>
<input name="username" id="account_l" type="text" placeholder="手机号/邮箱" />
</div>
<div class="form-group marb8 {% if login_form.errors.username %}errorput{% endif %}">
<label>密&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;码</label>
<input name="password" id="password_l" type="password" placeholder="请输入您的密码" />
</div>
<div class="error btns login-form-tips" id="jsLoginTips">
{% for key,error in login_form.errors.items %}
{{ error }}
{% endfor %}
{{ msg }}
</div>
<div class="auto-box marb38"> <a class="fr" href="forgetpwd.html">忘记密码?</a>
</div>
<input class="btn btn-green" id="jsLoginBtn" type="submit" value="立即登录 > " />
<input type='hidden' name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='5I2SlleZJOMUX9QbwYLUIAOshdrdpRcy' />
{% csrf_token %}
</form>
<p class="form-p">没有慕学在线网帐号?<a href="register.html">[立即注册]</a></p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</section>
<script src="/static/js/jquery.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="/static/js/unslider.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="/static/js/login.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
</body>
</html>

login.html

显示效果,当不输入用户名,密码小与五位数的时候的提示信息如下:

上一篇:Django+xadmin打造在线教育平台(一)

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