全局变量

全局变量 python在一个.py文件内部自动添加了一些全局变量

print(vars())  #查看当前的全局变量

执行结果:

{'__package__': None, '__loader__': <_frozen_importlib_external.SourceFileLoader object at 0x01035A70>, '__cached__': None, '__name__': '__main__', '__spec__': None, '__builtins__': <module 'builtins' (built-in)>, '__doc__': None, '__file__': 'D:/untitled/python5/python5/index.py'}

__builtins__存放内置函数

__doc__ 对.py文件的注释

__package__  当前.py所在的文件夹用 . 划分
导入的其他文件:指定文件文件夹所在包用.划分

__file__ 文件本身自己的路径

__cached__  缓存

__name__ ==' __main__'  只有执行python  主.py文件时 __name__ ==' __main__' 否则 __name__ = 模块名

主文件调用主函数前必须加  if __name__ ==' __main__' 判断

"""
我是index.py文件的注释
"""
print(__doc__)
执行结果:

我是index.py文件的注释

print(__file__)
执行结果:
D:/untitled/python5/python5/s1.py
import os
import sys
x1 = os.path.dirname(__file__)   # 返回上一级目录
x2 = 'bin'
xin = os.path.join(x1, x2)
sys.path.append(xin)
for i in sys.path:
    print(i)

执行结果:
D:\untitled\python5\lib
D:\untitled
D:\python3.5\python35.zip
D:\python3.5\DLLs
D:\python3.5\lib
D:\python3.5
D:\python3.5\lib\site-packages
D:/untitled/python5/lib\bin
from lib.xx import commons #进入lib文件夹下的xx文件导入commons文件 print(commons.__package__)#文件夹套文件夹用 . 来区分 执行结果: lib.xx 

from lib.xx import commons #进入lib文件夹下的xx文件导入commons文件 print(commons.__cached__) #pyton3里有python2 里没有 用来缓存一个.pyc文件 

#print(__name__) #如果执行当前的主文件.py__name__就等于__main__ 在其他文件或者导入的__name__就是本身文件的名字 from lib.xx import commons print(commons.__name__) 执行结果: __main__ lib.xx.commons

模块:

urllib:request

发起http请求,获取请求返回值

import urllib        #打开一个网址 发送http请求,
from  urllib import request

r = urllib.request.urlopen('http://www.webxml.com.cn//webservices/qqOnlineWebService.asmx/qqCheckOnline?qqCode=78956745465')
result = r.read().decode('utf-8')  #读取打开网址给的返回值 解码成utf-8
print(result)

  

json 和 pickle 

用于序列化的两个模块

  • json,用于字符串 和 python数据类型间进行转换
  • pickle,用于python特有的类型 和 python的数据类型间进行转换

Json模块提供了四个功能:dumps、dump、loads、load

pickle模块提供了四个功能:dumps、dump、loads、load

s = '{"desc":"invilad-citykey","status":1002}' 用于字符串 和 python数据类型间进行转换 字典类型里如果是字符串必须是双引号
l = '[11,22,33,44]'

import json   ==字符串, 

result = json.loads(s)   #loads 将字符串转换为数据基本类型
print(result,type(result))
ss = json.loads(l)
print(ss,type(ss))

xin = ['xin','xin1','xin2']
ss = json.dumps(xin)           #将python基本数据类型,转换为字符串
print(ss,type(ss))

dic = {'k1': 123,'k2':'v2'}
z = json.dump(dic,open('db','w'))  # 将字符串转换为字典 在字典写入文件
print(z)
r = json.load(open('db','r'))  #将字符串转换为字典读取文件里的字典 类型
print(r,type(r))

requests模块已经将常用的Http请求方法为用户封装完成,用户直接调用其提供的相应方法即可,其中方法的所有参数有:

def request(method, url, **kwargs):
    """Constructs and sends a :class:`Request <Request>`.

    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the :class:`Request`.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'name': file-like-objects`` (or ``{'name': ('filename', fileobj)}``) for multipart encoding upload.
    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
    :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data
        before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read
        timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
    :type timeout: float or tuple
    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Set to True if POST/PUT/DELETE redirect following is allowed.
    :type allow_redirects: bool
    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
    :param verify: (optional) whether the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided. Defaults to ``True``.
    :param stream: (optional) if ``False``, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response

    Usage::

      >>> import requests
      >>> req = requests.request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
      <Response [200]>
    """

    # By using the 'with' statement we are sure the session is closed, thus we
    # avoid leaving sockets open which can trigger a ResourceWarning in some
    # cases, and look like a memory leak in others.
    with sessions.Session() as session:
        return session.request(method=method, url=url, **kwargs)

更多参数
第三方模块
requests  用于发送http请求 (用py模拟浏览器浏览网页)
requests.get ("http://www.baidu.com") 可以发送一个http请求 发送成功接收一个返回值 这个返回值就是个字符串

import requests
response = requests.get("http://www.weather.com.cn/adat/sk/101010500.html")
response.encoding = 'utf-8'
xin = response.text   # text 表示返回的内容
print(xin)

XML是实现不同语言或程序之间进行数据交换的协议,XML文件格式如下:

 Element类的方法:
# tag       #根节点返回节点的标签名
# attrib    #标签属性
# find      #查找
# iter      #返回匹配到的元素的迭代器     用于找到某一类节点并去循环
# set       #修改属性
# get       #获取属性
#text     返回的内容
ElenmentTree类的方法:
获取xml文件的根节点通过getroot获取根节点
1.tag获取节点的标签名
2.attrib 获取节点的属性
3 text 获取标签的内容
<data>
    <country name="Liechtenstein">
        <rank updated="yes">2</rank>
        <year>2023</year>
        <gdppc>141100</gdppc>
        <neighbor direction="E" name="Austria" />
        <neighbor direction="W" name="Switzerland" />
    </country>
    <country name="Singapore">
        <rank updated="yes">5</rank>
        <year>2026</year>
        <gdppc>59900</gdppc>
        <neighbor direction="N" name="Malaysia" />
    </country>
    <country name="Panama">
        <rank updated="yes">69</rank>
        <year>2026</year>
        <gdppc>13600</gdppc>
        <neighbor direction="W" name="Costa Rica" />
        <neighbor direction="E" name="Colombia" />
    </country>
</data>

1,解析xml

解析xml 有两种解析方式

一种将字符串解析成xml格式

一种直接将文件解析成xml格式

from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET  #利用ElementTree 模块下的xml 方法可以把一个字符串类型的转换为Element类。从而从而利用Element类下面的方法                                             # xml(字符串)解析方式只能读不能写
str_xml = open('db.xml','r').read()   #打开文件,读取xml内容 接收到一个字符串
print(str_xml)
root = ET.XML(str_xml)                    #将字符串解析成xml特殊的对象,toot就是特殊对象 他代指xml文件的节点
print(root)
from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
root = ET.XML(open('db.xml','r',encoding='utf-8').read())
print(root.tag)   #获取文件的顶层标签
print(dir(root))
另一种方式
tree = ET.parse('db.xml') #直接将文件解析成xml格式 类型是ElementTree
print(tree) root = tree.getroot() #获取到xml文件的节点
print(root)

2,操作xml

xml 格式类型是节点套节点,每一个节点都有不同的功能 以便对当前的节点进行操作

class Element:
    """An XML element.

    This class is the reference implementation of the Element interface.

    An element's length is its number of subelements.  That means if you
    want to check if an element is truly empty, you should check BOTH
    its length AND its text attribute.

    The element tag, attribute names, and attribute values can be either
    bytes or strings.

    *tag* is the element name.  *attrib* is an optional dictionary containing
    element attributes. *extra* are additional element attributes given as
    keyword arguments.

    Example form:
        <tag attrib>text<child/>...</tag>tail

    """

    当前节点的标签名
    tag = None
    """The element's name."""

    当前节点的属性

    attrib = None
    """Dictionary of the element's attributes."""

    当前节点的内容
    text = None
    """
    Text before first subelement. This is either a string or the value None.
    Note that if there is no text, this attribute may be either
    None or the empty string, depending on the parser.

    """

    tail = None
    """
    Text after this element's end tag, but before the next sibling element's
    start tag.  This is either a string or the value None.  Note that if there
    was no text, this attribute may be either None or an empty string,
    depending on the parser.

    """

    def __init__(self, tag, attrib={}, **extra):
        if not isinstance(attrib, dict):
            raise TypeError("attrib must be dict, not %s" % (
                attrib.__class__.__name__,))
        attrib = attrib.copy()
        attrib.update(extra)
        self.tag = tag
        self.attrib = attrib
        self._children = []

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<%s %r at %#x>" % (self.__class__.__name__, self.tag, id(self))

    def makeelement(self, tag, attrib):
        创建一个新节点
        """Create a new element with the same type.

        *tag* is a string containing the element name.
        *attrib* is a dictionary containing the element attributes.

        Do not call this method, use the SubElement factory function instead.

        """
        return self.__class__(tag, attrib)

    def copy(self):
        """Return copy of current element.

        This creates a shallow copy. Subelements will be shared with the
        original tree.

        """
        elem = self.makeelement(self.tag, self.attrib)
        elem.text = self.text
        elem.tail = self.tail
        elem[:] = self
        return elem

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self._children)

    def __bool__(self):
        warnings.warn(
            "The behavior of this method will change in future versions.  "
            "Use specific 'len(elem)' or 'elem is not None' test instead.",
            FutureWarning, stacklevel=2
            )
        return len(self._children) != 0 # emulate old behaviour, for now

    def __getitem__(self, index):
        return self._children[index]

    def __setitem__(self, index, element):
        # if isinstance(index, slice):
        #     for elt in element:
        #         assert iselement(elt)
        # else:
        #     assert iselement(element)
        self._children[index] = element

    def __delitem__(self, index):
        del self._children[index]

    def append(self, subelement):
        为当前节点追加一个子节点
        """Add *subelement* to the end of this element.

        The new element will appear in document order after the last existing
        subelement (or directly after the text, if it's the first subelement),
        but before the end tag for this element.

        """
        self._assert_is_element(subelement)
        self._children.append(subelement)

    def extend(self, elements):
        为当前节点扩展 n 个子节点
        """Append subelements from a sequence.

        *elements* is a sequence with zero or more elements.

        """
        for element in elements:
            self._assert_is_element(element)
        self._children.extend(elements)

    def insert(self, index, subelement):
        在当前节点的子节点中插入某个节点,即:为当前节点创建子节点,然后插入指定位置
        """Insert *subelement* at position *index*."""
        self._assert_is_element(subelement)
        self._children.insert(index, subelement)

    def _assert_is_element(self, e):
        # Need to refer to the actual Python implementation, not the
        # shadowing C implementation.
        if not isinstance(e, _Element_Py):
            raise TypeError('expected an Element, not %s' % type(e).__name__)

    def remove(self, subelement):
        在当前节点在子节点中删除某个节点
        """Remove matching subelement.

        Unlike the find methods, this method compares elements based on
        identity, NOT ON tag value or contents.  To remove subelements by
        other means, the easiest way is to use a list comprehension to
        select what elements to keep, and then use slice assignment to update
        the parent element.

        ValueError is raised if a matching element could not be found.

        """
        # assert iselement(element)
        self._children.remove(subelement)

    def find(self, path, namespaces=None):
        获取第一个寻找到的子节点
        """Find first matching element by tag name or path.

        *path* is a string having either an element tag or an XPath,
        *namespaces* is an optional mapping from namespace prefix to full name.

        Return the first matching element, or None if no element was found.

        """
        return ElementPath.find(self, path, namespaces)

    def findtext(self, path, default=None, namespaces=None):
        获取第一个寻找到的子节点的内容
        """Find text for first matching element by tag name or path.

        *path* is a string having either an element tag or an XPath,
        *default* is the value to return if the element was not found,
        *namespaces* is an optional mapping from namespace prefix to full name.

        Return text content of first matching element, or default value if
        none was found.  Note that if an element is found having no text
        content, the empty string is returned.

        """
        return ElementPath.findtext(self, path, default, namespaces)

    def findall(self, path, namespaces=None):
        获取所有的子节点
        """Find all matching subelements by tag name or path.

        *path* is a string having either an element tag or an XPath,
        *namespaces* is an optional mapping from namespace prefix to full name.

        Returns list containing all matching elements in document order.

        """
        return ElementPath.findall(self, path, namespaces)

    def iterfind(self, path, namespaces=None):
        获取所有指定的节点,并创建一个迭代器(可以被for循环)
        """Find all matching subelements by tag name or path.

        *path* is a string having either an element tag or an XPath,
        *namespaces* is an optional mapping from namespace prefix to full name.

        Return an iterable yielding all matching elements in document order.

        """
        return ElementPath.iterfind(self, path, namespaces)

    def clear(self):
        清空节点
        """Reset element.

        This function removes all subelements, clears all attributes, and sets
        the text and tail attributes to None.

        """
        self.attrib.clear()
        self._children = []
        self.text = self.tail = None

    def get(self, key, default=None):
        获取当前节点的属性值
        """Get element attribute.

        Equivalent to attrib.get, but some implementations may handle this a
        bit more efficiently.  *key* is what attribute to look for, and
        *default* is what to return if the attribute was not found.

        Returns a string containing the attribute value, or the default if
        attribute was not found.

        """
        return self.attrib.get(key, default)

    def set(self, key, value):
        为当前节点设置属性值
        """Set element attribute.

        Equivalent to attrib[key] = value, but some implementations may handle
        this a bit more efficiently.  *key* is what attribute to set, and
        *value* is the attribute value to set it to.

        """
        self.attrib[key] = value

    def keys(self):
        获取当前节点的所有属性的 key

        """Get list of attribute names.

        Names are returned in an arbitrary order, just like an ordinary
        Python dict.  Equivalent to attrib.keys()

        """
        return self.attrib.keys()

    def items(self):
        获取当前节点的所有属性值,每个属性都是一个键值对
        """Get element attributes as a sequence.

        The attributes are returned in arbitrary order.  Equivalent to
        attrib.items().

        Return a list of (name, value) tuples.

        """
        return self.attrib.items()

    def iter(self, tag=None):
        在当前节点的子孙中根据节点名称寻找所有指定的节点,并返回一个迭代器(可以被for循环)。
        """Create tree iterator.

        The iterator loops over the element and all subelements in document
        order, returning all elements with a matching tag.

        If the tree structure is modified during iteration, new or removed
        elements may or may not be included.  To get a stable set, use the
        list() function on the iterator, and loop over the resulting list.

        *tag* is what tags to look for (default is to return all elements)

        Return an iterator containing all the matching elements.

        """
        if tag == "*":
            tag = None
        if tag is None or self.tag == tag:
            yield self
        for e in self._children:
            yield from e.iter(tag)

    # compatibility
    def getiterator(self, tag=None):
        # Change for a DeprecationWarning in 1.4
        warnings.warn(
            "This method will be removed in future versions.  "
            "Use 'elem.iter()' or 'list(elem.iter())' instead.",
            PendingDeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2
        )
        return list(self.iter(tag))

    def itertext(self):
        在当前节点的子孙中根据节点名称寻找所有指定的节点的内容,并返回一个迭代器(可以被for循环)。
        """Create text iterator.

        The iterator loops over the element and all subelements in document
        order, returning all inner text.

        """
        tag = self.tag
        if not isinstance(tag, str) and tag is not None:
            return
        if self.text:
            yield self.text
        for e in self:
            yield from e.itertext()
            if e.tail:
                yield e.tail

由于 每个节点 都具有以上的方法,并且在上一步骤中解析时均得到了root(xml文件的根节点),so   可以利用以上方法进行操作xml文件。
遍历XML文档的所有内容

from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
root = ET.XML(open('db.xml','r',encoding='utf-8').read())
print(root.tag)   #获取文件的顶层标签
for node in root:   循环遍历xml文档的第二层节点
    print(node.tag,node.attrib)  #获取标签名,及属性
    for i in node:       # 循环遍历第三层
        print(i.tag,i.text)  #循环遍历xml文件的第三层标签名和内容

遍历xml指定的节点内容

指定xml文件的节点内容
from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
root = ET.XML(open('db.xml','r',encoding='utf-8').read())
print(root.tag)   #获取文件的顶层标签
for node in root:
    print(node.tag,node.attrib,node.find('year').text)  #获取指定的的节点的标签名及内容

from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
root = ET.XML(open('db.xml','r',encoding='utf-8').read())
print(root.tag)   #获取文件的顶层标签
for node in root:
    print(node.tag,node.attrib,node.find('rank').text)  #获取指定的的节点的标签名及内容

3,修改节点内容

由于修改的节点时,均是在内存中进行,其不会影响文件中的内容。所以,如果想要修改,则需要重新将内存中的内容写到文件。

# 进入xml文件下的etree文件导入ElementTree模块 将别名赋给ET
from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
str_xml = open('db.xml','r').read() #打开文件读取xml文件内容
root = ET.XML(str_xml)   #将接受到的字符串解析成xml格式的特殊对象,
print(root)     #获取顶层的标签
for node in root.iter('year'): # 循环遍历所有的year节点
    new_year = int(node.text)+1   #并且将year节点的内容每次有加一
    node.text = str(new_year)
    node.set('name','kaixin')     #给当前节点设置属性
    node.set(')
    del node.attrib['name']      #删除当前节点下的name属性

tree = ET.ElementTree(root)
tree.write('xxx.xml',encoding='utf-8')  #写入并保存文件
另一种方式  打开文件并解析成xml格式
from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET

tree = ET.parse('db.xml')    #直接解析xml文件
root = tree.getroot()
print(root.tag)
for node in root.iter('year'):
    new_year = int(node.text) + 1
    node.text = str(new_year)
    node.set('name','kaixin')
    node.set(')
    del node.attrib['name']

tree.write('zzz.xml',encoding='utf-8')

删除节点

from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
tree = ET.parse('db.xml')  #打开xml 文件
root = tree.getroot()      #获取到根节点
for country in root.findall('country'):  #循环遍历所有的 countrt
    rank = int(country.find('rank').text)   #获取每一个country节点下的节点内容
    if rank > 50:  # 只要rank大于50
        root.remove(country)    #删除指定的country节点内容
tree.write('xxx.xml',encoding='utf-8')

创建节点
tree

1 ElementTree 类创建 ElementTree(xxx)

root Element类创建的对象

# print(root.tag) # print(root.attrib)

2 getroot() 获取xml跟节点

3. write() 内存中的xml写入文件中

from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
tree = ET.parse('db.xml')  #直接解析xml文件
                                           # tree, 用ElementTree 创建的
                   #ElemenTree(xxx)创建   getroot ()获取xml根节点 weite()内存中的xml写入文件
root = tree.getroot()         #获取xml文件的根节点,Element类型
print(root.tag)
# #root Element类创建的对象
#  创建节点
son = root.makeelement('tt',{'kk':'vv'})   标签名 及属性
s = son.makeelement('})
son.append(s)
root.append(son)
tree.write('db.xml.xml')
from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
tree = ET.parse('db.xml')  #直接解析xml文件
root = tree.getroot()         #获取xml文件的根节点,Element类型
son = ET.Element('PP',{'kk':'vv'})   直接通过Element 方法创建节点
ele2 = ET.Element('})
son.append(ele2)   将第二层的节点追加到第一层的节点下
root.append(son)   将第一层的节点加到根节点下
tree.write('db.xml')  tree。write 将内存中的xml写入文件

configparser用于处理特定格式的文件,其本质上是利用open来操作文件。

import configparser  #处理将有效地读取这个配置文件数据

con = configparser.ConfigParser() #con 对象的read功能,打开文件读取文件,放进内容
con.read('in',encoding='utf-8')
# con对象中的sections 内存中寻找所有的[xxx]
xin = con.sections()   #获取所有的节点
print(xin)

ret = con.items('guokaixin')   #获取所有的键值对
print(ret)

ret = con.options('guokaixin')   #获取指定节点下的所有的键
print(ret)

ret = con.get('guokaixin','age')  #获取指定节点下的指定键的值
print(ret)
ret1 = con.getint('guokaixin','age')
print(ret1)
ret2 = con.getfloat('guokaixin','age')
print(ret2)
ret3 = con.getboolean('guokaixin','age')
print(ret3)

has_sec = con.has_section('guokaixin')   #检查节点是否存在
print(has_sec)
s = con.add_section('xinxin')   #添加节点
a = con.write(open('in','w'))
print(s)
print(a)

s = con.remove_section('xinxin')  #删除节点
a = con.write(open('in','w'))
print(s)
print(a)

检查、删除、添加节点

import configparser
a = configparser.ConfigParser()
s = a.read('xxxooo', encoding='utf-8')
print(s)
# 检查
has_opt = a.has_option('section1', 'k1')
print(has_opt)
# 删除
zz = a.remove_option('section1', 'k1')
cc = a.write(open('xxxooo', 'w'))
print(zz)
print(cc)
# 设置
zz = a.set(")
cc = a.write(open('xxxooo', 'w'))
print(zz)
print(cc)

由于原生保存的XML时默认无缩进,如果想要设置缩进的话, 需要修改保存方式:

from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
from xml.dom import minidom

def MyWrite(root,filr_path):
    rough_string = ET.tostring(root,'utf-8')
    reparsed = minidom.parseString(rough_string)
    new_str = reparsed.toprettyxml(indent='\t')  #加了缩进的字符串
    f = open(filr_path,'w',encoding='utf-8')
    f.write(new_str)
    f.close()

  shutil

 高级的 文件、文件夹、压缩包 处理模块

z = shutil.copyfileobj(open('zzz','r'),open('xxx.xml','w'))
print(z)     #将内容拷贝到另一个文件中

z = shutil.copyfile('zz.py','xx.py')
print(z)          #拷贝文件

z = shutil.copymode('zz.py','xx.py')
print(z)      #拷贝加权限,内容用户不变原来是什么还是什么
z = shutil.copystat('zz.py','xx.py')
print(z)     # 拷贝状态的信息,包括:mode bits, atime, mtime, flags
z = shutil.copy('zz.py','xx.py')
print(z)     # 拷贝文件和权限
z = shutil.copy2('zz.py','xx.py')
print(z)      #拷贝文件和状态信息
 z = shutil.copytree('zz.py','xx.py',ignore=shutil.ignore_patterns('*.pyc', 'tmp*'))
print(z)  #递归的去拷贝文件夹

z = shutil.move('asd','in')
print(z) #递归的去移动文件,它类似mv命令,其实就是重命名。
z = shutil.rmtree('zz.py')
print(z) #递归的去删除文件

shutil 对压缩包的处理是调用 ZipFile 和 TarFile 两个模块来进行的,详细:

import zipfile

# z = zipfile.ZipFile('laxi.zip','w')
# z.write('in')
# z.write('xo.xml')
# z.close()

import zipfile
z = zipfile.ZipFile('spiders.zip','r')
z.extractall()
z.close()

logging:

很多程序都有记录日志的需求,并且日志中包含的信息即有正常的程序访问日志,还可能有错误、警告等信息输出,python的logging模块提供了标准的日志接口,你可以通过它存储各种格式的日志,logging的日志可以分为 debug()info()warning()error() and critical() 5个级别,下面我们看一下怎么用。

logging.basicConfig(filename='log.log',
                    format='%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s -%(module)s:  %(message)s',
                    datefmt='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %p',
                    level=logging.INFO)

对于等级:
"""
CRITICAL = 50
FATAL = CRITICAL
ERROR = 40
WARNING = 30
WARN = WARNING
INFO = 20
DEBUG = 10
NOTSET = 0
"""

logging.critical('ssssssssssss')
logging.fatal('zzzzzzzzzzzz')
logging.error('ssssssssss')
logging.warning('ssssss')
logging.info('ssssssssss')
logging.debug('xxxxxxxxxxxx')
logging.log(logging.INFO,')
只有大于当前日志等级的操作才会被记录。

用于便捷记录日志且线程安全的模块

import logging

logging.warning("user [kai] attempted wrong password more than 3 times")
logging.critical("server is down")

#输出
WARNING:root:user [kai] attempted wrong password more than  times
CRITICAL:root:server is down

最简单的用法

看一下这几个日志级别分别代表什么意思

Level When it’s used
DEBUG Detailed information, typically of interest only when diagnosing problems.
INFO Confirmation that things are working as expected.
WARNING An indication that something unexpected happened, or indicative of some problem in the near future (e.g. ‘disk space low’). The software is still working as expected.
ERROR Due to a more serious problem, the software has not been able to perform some function.
CRITICAL A serious error, indicating that the program itself may be unable to continue running.

  

如果想把日志写到文件里,也很简单

1
2
3
4
5
6
import logging
 
logging.basicConfig(filename='example.log',level=logging.INFO)
logging.debug('This message should go to the log file')
logging.info('So should this')
logging.warning('And this, too')

其中下面这句中的level=loggin.INFO意思是,把日志纪录级别设置为INFO,也就是说,只有比日志是INFO或比INFO级别更高 的日志才会被纪录到文件里,在这个例子, 第一条日志是不会被纪录的,如果希望纪录debug的日志,那把日志级别改成DEBUG就行了。

1
logging.basicConfig(filename='example.log',level=logging.INFO)

感觉上面的日志格式忘记加上时间啦,日志不知道时间怎么行呢,下面就来加上!

1
2
3
4
5
6
import logging
logging.basicConfig(format='%(asctime)s %(message)s', datefmt='%m/%d/%Y %I:%M:%S %p')
logging.warning('is when this event was logged.')
 
#输出
12/12/2010 11:46:36 AM is when this event was logged.

  

如果想同时把log打印在屏幕和文件日志里,就需要了解一点复杂的知识 了

The logging library takes a modular approach and offers several categories of components: loggers, handlers, filters, and formatters.

  • Loggers expose the interface that application code directly uses.
  • Handlers send the log records (created by loggers) to the appropriate destination.
  • Filters provide a finer grained facility for determining which log records to output.
  • Formatters specify the layout of log records in the final output

 

python模块介绍二。的更多相关文章

  1. python模块介绍-locustio:性能测试工具locustio

    转自:http://automationtesting.sinaapp.com/blog/m_locustio_doc python测试文章 http://weibo.com/cizhenshi?is ...

  2. python模块介绍- multi-mechanize 性能测试工具

    python模块介绍- multi-mechanize 性能测试工具 2013-09-13 磁针石 #承接软件自动化实施与培训等gtalk:ouyangchongwu#gmail.comqq 3739 ...

  3. python模块介绍- xlwt 创建xls文件(excel)

    python模块介绍- xlwt 创建xls文件(excel) 2013-06-24磁针石 #承接软件自动化实施与培训等gtalk:ouyangchongwu#gmail.comqq 37391319 ...

  4. python模块介绍- binascii 二进制和ASCII转换

    python模块介绍-binascii二进制和ASCII转换 目录 项目简介 简介: Uu编码 Binhex编码 Base64编码 QP码 CRC校验和 二进制转换 其他实例 项目简介 Python中 ...

  5. python模块介绍- HTMLParser 简单的HTML和XHTML解析器

    python模块介绍- HTMLParser 简单的HTML和XHTML解析器 2013-09-11 磁针石 #承接软件自动化实施与培训等gtalk:ouyangchongwu#gmail.comqq ...

  6. python成长之路【第十八篇】:python模块介绍、模块导入和重载

    一.模块和命名空间 一般来说,Python程序往往由多个模块文件构成,通过import语句连接在一起.每个模块文件是一个独立完备的变量包,即一个命名空间.一个模块文件不能看到其他文件定义的变量名,除非 ...

  7. 扩展Python模块系列(二)----一个简单的例子

    本节使用一个简单的例子引出Python C/C++ API的详细使用方法.针对的是CPython的解释器. 目标:创建一个Python内建模块test,提供一个功能函数distance, 计算空间中两 ...

  8. python模块介绍- SocketServer 网络服务框架

    来源:https://my.oschina.net/u/1433482/blog/190612 摘要: SocketServer简化了网络服务器的编写.它有4个类:TCPServer,UDPServe ...

  9. Python 模块介绍

    一.模块:用一坨代码实现了某个功能的代码集合. 二.模块分为三种 1.自定义模块 2.内置标准模块(又称标准库) 3.开源模块(上传方式,百度PyPi) 开源模块安装方式: a.yum b.pip c ...

随机推荐

  1. Big String-POJ2887块状数组

    Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 131072K Description You are given a string and supposed to do some ...

  2. jQuery extend方法使用及实现

    一.jQuery extend方法介绍 jQuery的API手册中,extend方法挂载在jQuery和jQuery.fn两个不同对象上方法,但在jQuery内部代码实现的是相同的,只是功能却不太一样 ...

  3. jmeter(一)基础介绍

    参考书籍:段念<软件性能测试与案例剖析>——第二版 推荐一本书<零成本实现web性能测试——基于Apache—jmeter>,主要内容是一些关于jmeter的实战使用,想学习的 ...

  4. Linux tcpdump 命令详解

    简介用简单的话来定义tcpdump,就是:dump the traffic on a network,根据使用者的定义对网络上的数据包进行截获的包分析工具. tcpdump可以将网络中传送的数据包的& ...

  5. 学习java第7天

    关于继承还需要留意的是,子类中的所有构造方法都默认访问父类的无参构造,注意是无参,而且是必须的,如果父类没有无参子类就会报错.如果你不想给父类无参构造,那么在子类中加上super(),显式的调用有参构 ...

  6. jQuery Devrama Slider 幻灯片

    Devrama Slider 是个图像滑块,带有许多非常有趣的特性. 它不仅支持图像还支持 HTML 内容. 响应式 方便 CSS3 转换 转换效果 进度条 高级的预加载和延迟加载 CSS 自定义 用 ...

  7. Windows下通过脚本快速修改IP地址

    Windows下通过脚本快速修改IP地址 如果通过Windows的网络属性修改Ip/网关,真是太麻烦了. 经常要切换ip,所以我写了两个脚本: c:\办公室.bat netsh interface i ...

  8. HDU--2024

    C语言合法标识符 Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 65536/32768 K (Java/Others) Total S ...

  9. C#开发短信发送

    //需要用到的命名空间 using System.Net;using System.IO;using System.Text;//调用时只需要把拼成的URL传给该函数即可.判断返回值即可public ...

  10. 利用Python代码编写计算器小程序

    import tkinter import tkinter.messagebox import math class JSQ: def __init__(self): #创建主界面 self.root ...